The Taiwan Question in China-U.S. Relations
A. The Taiwan question is the most sensitive issue at the core of the normalization of China-U.S. relations
The Taiwan question has always been the single most important and most sensitive issue at the core of China-U.S. relations. In June 1950, U.S. President Truman ordered the Seventh Fleet of U.S. Navy be sent into the Taiwan Straits, and the Thirteenth Fleet of U.S. Air Force be stationed on the Taiwan Island, undisguisedly obstructing by force the Chinese Government and people from liberating Taiwan. In December 1954, the U.S. signed the so-called Joint Defense Treaty with the Taiwan authorities, thus placing Taiwan Province of China under the protection of the U.S.
Since the very beginning, the Chinese Government and people have struggled resolutely against the U.S. illegal invasion of Taiwan, which gave a serious blow to the U.S. for its ambitious plot to separate Taiwan from Chinese territory, and upheld China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. In October 1971, the 26th United Nations General Assembly passed the No. 2758 Resolution, which restored to the People's Republic of China all its legitimate rights in UN while expelling the "representatives" of the Taiwan authorities.
In February 1972, U.S. President Nixon paid a visit to China. On February 28, both China and U.S. issued the Shanghai Communique, in which the U.S. Government declared: "The United States acknowledges that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Straits maintain there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China. The U.S. Government does not challenge that position." In December 1978, the U.S. Government accepted the three principles of the Chinese Government on the establishment of diplomatic relations, i.e., the United States shall sever its "diplomatic relations" with the Taiwan authorities, abrogate "the Joint Defense Treaty" with Taiwan, and withdraw its military forces from Taiwan. The two countries signed and issued the "Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America". The U.S. Government stated in the Communiqués: "The United States of America recognizes the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan." "The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China." The two countries established formal diplomatic relations on January 1, 1979.
B. Issues concerning U.S. arms sales to Taiwan and the Theatre Missile Defense System(TMD)
In order to resolve the issue of U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, the Chinese and U.S governments held negotiations for nearly ten months and reached an agreement on August 17, 1982. On that date, the two sides issued the China-U.S. August 17 Joint Communiqué , in which the U.S. Government reiterates that it has no intention to pursue a policy of "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan", and it "does not seek to carry out a long-term policy of arms sales to Taiwan, that its arms sales to Taiwan will not exceed, either in qualitative or in quantitative terms, the level of those supplied in recent years since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, and it intends gradually to reduce its sale of arms to Taiwan, leading, over a period of time, to a final resolution". However, the U.S Government broke its word. Instead of earnestly complying with the stipulations of the Communiqué, it has repeatedly conducted actions and activities in violation of the Communiqué.
In September 1992, the U.S. Government declared that it would sell 150 F-16 high-capability fighter-jets to Taiwan. On September 3, Vice Foreign Minister Liu Huaqiu summoned U.S Ambassador to China J. Stapleton Roy to the Foreign Ministry for an interview on this matter, and lodged with him the strongest protest, as instructed, to the U.S. government. On the following day, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress issued a solemn statement to express extreme indignation at U.S. government's decision to sell F-16 fighters to Taiwan and lodged the strongest protest, on behalf of all the nationalities in China, with the U.S. Government.
The U.S. continued to sell to Taiwan advanced weapons of various types and to proliferate sensitive military technology. "The U.S. National Defense Authorization Act for the Fiscal Year 1999" passed by the congress demanded the U.S. Government study the issue of including Taiwan into the Theatre Missile Defense (TMD) system.
On January 21, 1999, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesman expressed grave concern over the U.S. announcement of the plan to develop National Missile Defense(NMD) and Theatre Missile Defense(TMD) systems, emphasizing that any country's provision of any weaponry systems, including the TMD system to Taiwan, would constitute a serious encroachment upon China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and certainly would be strongly opposed by the Chinese people.
On March 1, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesman, commenting on the U.S. Defense Department's so-called "the Security Situation in the Taiwan Straits", pointed out that the report was spreading word of the so-called Chinese mainland's missile threats to Taiwan, in an attempt to mislead the public opinion and use it as an excuse for selling advanced weapons to Taiwan. Such an act by the U.S. side was a serious interference in China's internal affairs, and the Chinese side hereby expressed its strong dissatisfaction and firm opposition. In late April, the U.S. and Taiwan held the Annual Arms-sales Consultation, at which the U.S. agreed to sell long-distance early-warning radar and other advanced weaponry systems to Taiwan.
At the same time, the U.S. Department of Defense submitted to the Congress "the Report on Theatre Missile Defense Architecture Options in the Asia-Pacific Region", which once again was trying to spread word of the so-called China's missile threats to Taiwan and put forward five options of the way to bring Taiwan into the TMD system. The Chinese side made solemn representations to the U.S. side on many occasions concerning the above-mentioned moves by the U.S. and pointed out their grave harmfulness.
On August 2, 1999, Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi summoned James Moriarty, Charge d'affaires ad interim of the U.S. Embassy in China and lodged a strong protest against the U.S. Government's recent announcement to sell Taiwan $550 million worth of advanced weapons and equipment including E-2T Early-warning planes and parts and equipment for F-16 Fighters. He demanded that the U.S. Government immediately cancel the above-mentioned arms sales to Taiwan.
On August 20, commenting on Lee Teng-Hui's claim that Taiwan needed to develop TMD system, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesman pointed out that it would be an encroachment on China's sovereignty and a serious threat to China's national security if any country attempts to include Taiwan into the TMD system in any form. And such a move would definitely bluster the attempt at the independence of Taiwan and set obstacles for China's peaceful reunification, thus undermining peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific Region. The Chinese Government and people stand firmly against this.
C. Lee Teng-hui's visit to the U.S. and other issues
On May 22, 1995, U.S. State Department spokesman announced formally that U.S. President Clinton had decided to allow Lee Teng-hui "to pay a private visit to the United States in the capacity of an alumnus".
On May 23, the Foreign Ministry of the People's Republic of China issued a statement, expressing great indignation and raising strong protest against the U.S. Government over its grave move that violated the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués, infringed upon China's sovereignty and interest, and obstruct the great cause of China's peaceful reunification. On the same day, Vice-Premier and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen summoned U.S. Ambassador Stapleton Roy and lodged a strong protest with him to the U.S. Government.
On May 24, Foreign Affairs Committees of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) respectively issued statements on this event, expressing astonishment and indignation at the U.S. Government's decision and supporting the strong protest lodged by the Chinese Government against the U.S. Government.
On May 26, the Foreign Ministry spokesman announced that the Chinese Government had decided to postpone State Councilor and Defense Minister Chi Haotian's visit to the United States scheduled for June, and that State Councilor Li Guixian and Air Force Commander Yu Zhenwu had suspended their current visit to America. On May 28, the Chinese Government made a decision to put off the expert consultation between the two countries on "the Missile Technology Control Regime" (MTCR) and nuclear energy cooperation. In addition, the planned visits, scheduled respectively for June and July, of Robert Einhorn, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Non-Proliferation in the Politico-Military Affairs Bureau, and John D. Holum, Director for the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), were postponed as China required.
From June 7 to 11, Lee Teng-hui paid a so-called "private" visit to the United States. During his visit, he gave a political speech at Cornell University, and conducted wantonly separatist activities on various occasions with the purpose of creating "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan". On June 8, at the press conference, when answering questions about the U.S. Government permission to Lee Teng-hui's visit, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Shen Guofang pointed out that the Chinese Government had expressed strong dissatisfaction with the U.S. Government for clinging obstinately to a wrong position. On the same day, U.S. President Clinton met with Chinese Ambassador Li Daoyu at the White House and said that U.S. Government's permission of Lee Teng-hui's visit did not represent or indicate any major change or alteration in U.S. basic policy towards China, that the United States followed one China policy rather than a policy of "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan", and that the U.S. would continue its efforts to develop a "constructive relationship" with China. On June 17, the Chinese Government announced calling Ambassador Li Daoyu back home to report his work.
On August 1, Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen said in Brunei during his meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Warren M. Christopher that there were certain principles for the development of China-U.S. relations, and these were the principles determined by the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués, the core of which was the Taiwan question, and that the Chinese side paid due attention to the recent remarks by the American side on the Taiwan Issue, and hoped that the U.S. Government would honor its commitments with practical steps.
From August 25 to 27, Vice Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing had a consultation in Beijing with U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Peter Turnoff. During the consultation, the American side said that the United States pursued a one-China policy, followed the three Joint Communiqués between the U.S. and China, stood against any advocacy of "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan", and were opposed to Taiwan's independence and Taiwan's admission into the United Nations, and that the U.S. Government would deal with the Taiwan Question with caution, and impose strict restrictions on future visits to the United States by Taiwan leaders.
On October 24, U.S. President Clinton reiterated during his meeting with Chinese President Jiang Zemin in New York that the U.S. Government was committed to the principles enshrined in the three Joint Communiqués , that the U.S. acknowledged that there is only one China, Taiwan is a part of China, and the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal Government of China. President Clinton also stressed that the United States was against "two China's" and "one China, one Taiwan", "Taiwan independence "and Taiwan's entry into the United Nations.
In March 1996, the United States sent a task fleet composing of two aircraft carriers towards areas close to the Taiwan Straits, in an attempt to show off its military muscles, while the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was conducting a military exercise in the Straits targeting the "Taiwan independence" and the separatists. The Chinese Government made solemn representations and struggled resolutely against the United States for its above wrong doings.
D. The U.S. makes "three noes" commitment
In October 1997, during President Jiang Zemin's state visit to the United States, China and the U.S issued a Joint Statement, in which the U.S. reiterated that it adhered to its "one China" policy and the principles set forth in the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués. U.S. President Clinton and some other high-ranking U.S. Government officials reaffirmed on many occasions that the United States did not support the advocacy of "two Chinas " or "one China, one Taiwan", did not support "Taiwan independence", did not support Taiwan's bid to join the United Nations, and it would handle the issue of arms sale to Taiwan in compliance with the principles enshrined in the China-U.S. August 17 Joint Communiqué.
When U.S. President Clinton paid a state visit to China in June 1998, he publicly reiterated that the U.S. adheres to the "one China" policy and abides by the principles of the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués , and that the U.S. Government does not support the positions of "Taiwan independence", of "Two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan" and of Taiwan's joining any international organizations of sovereign nations.
E. The so-called "two states theory"
On July 9, 1999, Li Teng-hui flagrantly declared his "two states theory", which completely exposed his political nature of splitting the country. The Chinese Government made strong and prompt response, demanding Li Teng-hui to take back his "two states theory" and stop his activities to split up China. Meanwhile, the Chinese Government required the U.S. side scrupulously abide by the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués and its relevant commitments concerned with the Taiwan question and refrain from making any remarks or moves that would encourage the "Taiwan Independence". President Clinton and the U.S. Government have publicly reiterated on many occasions the U.S. Government's commitment to stick to its "one China" policy and to abide by the three U.S.-China Joint Communiqués and the "three noes "promises, and expressed the hope that the two sides across the Taiwan straits resolve their differences peacefully and continue the cross-straits dialogue.
On July 18, 1999, President Jiang Zemin held a telephone conversation with President Clinton, who had requested the call. President Clinton said that he called to reaffirm the U.S. Government's strong commitment to its "one China" policy, emphasizing that the U.S. policy on Taiwan has not changed and that the Chinese side could have full trust in all his previous remarks on the Taiwan issue. President Jiang pointed out that the Taiwan issue concerns China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as China's peaceful reunification and the national sentiments of all Chinese people. Li Teng-hui has taken a dangerous step on the road to separating the nation by openly defining the cross-straits relations as "state to state" relations. It is a severe provocation against the universally recognized principle "one China" policy and has further exposed his political nature of deliberately dividing China's territory and sovereignty in attempt to separate Taiwan from China. There is but one China in the world and Taiwan is a part of China. Splitting China's territory and sovereignty of China cannot be allowed under any circumstances. Our basic principle for the settlement of the Taiwan question remains to be "peaceful reunification and one country, two systems". However, we will not commit ourselves to renouncing the use of force. The reason is very clear. There are certain forces both on the island of Taiwan and in the international community, which aim to separate Taiwan from the motherland. In situations where there is move aimed at the "independence of Taiwan" and foreign force's interference in China's reunification, we will not sit back. President Jiang said that the anti-China tide was still strong in the United States, with some people continuing to support the disruption position on "Taiwan Independence" and to back up the "Pro-independence force" on the island of Taiwan. History has proved that the way the United States handles the Taiwan issue has a direct effect on the China-U.S. relations. President Jiang expressed the hope that United States would strictly abide by the three China-U.S. Joint Communiqués and honor the commitment, publicly reaffirmed by President Clinton during his visit to China in 1998 and again emphasized recently by the White House, no to support "Taiwan Independence", not to support "Two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan", and not to support Taiwan joining any international organization that requires statehood. This is of essential importance in maintaining stability in the Taiwan Straits and reviving and improving China-US relations.
On July 25, Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan met with U.S. Secretary of State Madline Albright at the Singapore Conference of ARF Foreign Ministers and he reiterated the Chinese Government's solemn stand on the Taiwan question and its firm opposition against Lee Teng-Hui's "two states theory". Secretary of State Albright reaffirmed the U.S. Government's commitment to its "One China" policy and that said it would not change this policy. She said that the Taiwan question should be settled by the Chinese people themselves both sides of the Taiwan Straits and that the U.S. hoped that this issue would be solved through peaceful means.
On September 11, President Jiang Zemin and President Clinton held an official meeting after their arrival in Auckland for the 7th Informal Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum. During the Meeting President Jiang reiterated the principled position of the Chinese Government on the Taiwan question. He said, in the past two months, the "two states theory of Lee Teng-hui had incurred strong opposition and condemnation from the entire Chinese people. President Clinton also reaffirmed that the U.S. will support the "one China" policy. Now, more than 100 countries have stated their solemn position of adherence to the "one China " policy. However, lee Teng-hui obstinately and stubbornly sticks to his separatist "two states theory". Our struggle with Lee Tenghui is a struggle of maintaining or splitting up China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. For this question, we have no other choice. The "two states theory" of Lee Teng-hui is aimed to damage the peaceful situation across the Taiwan straits and hamper the development of the cross-strait ties, impact the improvement of the China-U.S. relations and undermine peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Facts have proved that Lee Teng-hui is a troublemaker and an obstacle for the improvement of the China-U.S. relations. President Jiang affirmed anew that the principles of "peaceful reunification and "one country, two systems" are China's basic approach to the solution of the Taiwan issue and we will exert our efforts for a peaceful reunification. At present the escalation of Lee Teng-hui's separatist activities of the motherland has aroused strong indignation of the whole Chinese people. In order to maintain state sovereignty and territory integrity, we will never promise to renounce the use of force in solving the Taiwan question. President Jiang said the Taiwan issue has always constituted the most prominent question in the China-U.S. relations. There are certain forces in the U.S. issue which have all along attempted to obstruct the reunification of China, meanwhile the way the United States handles the Taiwan issue has aroused the Chinese people to show their grave concern. To complete the great cause of the reunification of the motherland is not only in conformity of the interest of the Chinese people but also conducive to peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region and the healthy and stable development of the China-U.S. relations. President Clinton expressed that he fully understands that the Taiwan issue is of vital importance. Soon as Lee Teng-hui declared the "two states theory", he reaffirmed that the U.S. Government will follow the "one China policy". The "two states theory" of Lee Teng-hui has caused a lot of trouble both to China and the United States and he would like to reiterate that the U.S. will honor its commitment to the "one China policy".
F. "Taiwan Relations Act" and "Taiwan Security Enhancement Act "
In April 1979, U.S. President Carter signed into law the so-called "Taiwan Relations Act", which was passed by the U.S. Congress in March. The Act brazenly states: "It is the policy of the United States to consider any effort to determine the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful means, including by boycotts or embargoes, a threat to the peace and security of the Western Pacific area and of grave concern to the United States." This Act seriously breaches the fundamental principles enshrined in international law and the China-U.S. Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, encroaches upon China's sovereignty, and interferes with China's internal affairs. In essence, it provides Taiwan with "security guarantee" in a form of U.S. domestic legislation, aiming at hindering the reunification of Taiwan and the mainland of China. The Act incurred at its formation resolute objection from the Chinese Government and people.
Since 1999, the U.S. Congress has put forward numerous pro-Taiwan and anti-China bills. In March, the U.S. House and Senate adopted the so-called "20th Anniversary of the Taiwan Relations Act".
In March and May, a few members of the U.S. Senate and House successively put forward the so-called "Taiwan Security Enhancement Act", which brazenly advocated strengthening Taiwan's military capacities, selling TMD system, submarines and other advanced weapons and equipment to Taiwan, and even establishing direct links between the U.S. and Taiwan military forces and expanding their cooperation. That was another bill, after the "Taiwan Relations Act", by which the U.S. side attempts to brazenly interfere with China's internal affairs on the Taiwan question. The Chinese side made serious representations to the U.S. Government on the matter and demanded the U.S. administration to take concrete measures to prevent the Congress from discussing and passing the Act. Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesmen and the leading member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National People's Congress made remarks respectively, expressing China's strong dissatisfaction with, and firm opposition to the "Taiwan Security Enhancement Act" and other bills or acts concerning Taiwan. After the Foreign Relations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives passed the revised "Taiwan Security Enhancement Act" on October 26, the China once again made stern representation with the U.S. side.
On February 1, 2000 the U.S. House of Representatives adopted the aforesaid Act. On February 2, Mr. Yang Jiechi, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of China, summoned Mr. Prueher, U.S. Ambassador to China, and lodged a stern representation with the U.S. Government over the passage by the U.S. House of Representatives of the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act.
Mr. Yang stated that the U.S. House of Representatives, in disregard of the repeated stern representations of the Chinese side, passed on 1 February the so-called Taiwan Security Enhancement Act in an attempt to provide the so-called legal ground for the U.S. to conduct and expand military ties and exchanges with Taiwan and sell to the latter various kinds of sophisticated weaponry, equipment and technologies. In adopting the Act, the U.S. House of Representatives, aiming at creating "one China, one Taiwan" or "two Chinas", has undoubtedly violated the three China-U.S. joint communiqués and the relevant commitments made by the U.S. side, seriously infringed upon China's sovereignty and grossly interfered in China's internal affairs. The Chinese Government and people would like to express their strong indignation over and firm opposition to this.
Mr. Yang pointed out that the question of Taiwan bears on China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, directly touches upon the national pride of the entire Chinese people and has always been the most important and the most sensitive issue that lies at the core of China-U.S. relations. In the China-U.S. Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, the U.S. Government makes it very clear that it recognizes that the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China, there is but one China in the world and that Taiwan is part of China. Any attempt or action to disrupt China's great cause of reunification is absolutely unacceptable to the Chinese Government and people and is also doomed to failure. The Chinese Government and people have the determination, the confidence and the capability to resolve the Taiwan question at an early date and realize the complete reunification of the motherland.
Mr. Yang said that the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act, following the Taiwan Relations Act, is yet another bill concocted by a small number of pro-Taiwan and anti-China U.S. Congressmen on the question of Taiwan to deliberately hamper China's great cause of reunification. After the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act was introduced, the Chinese Government lodged stern representations with the U.S. Government, demanding the U.S. side take concrete steps to stop it from becoming law. The U.S. Government has pledged to do that. People with vision in the U.S. Senate and House have also voiced their unequivocal opposition to this bill. However, with the all-out clamoring and support of the pro-Taiwan and anti-China forces in the House, the House has gone so far as to pass this bill aimed at splitting China. Should this bill be passed and become law, it will surely abet Lee Teng-hui in pursuing the "two-state theory" and "Taiwan independence", further aggravate the tension across the Taiwan Straits, undermine peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region and seriously impair and disrupt China-U.S. relations.
Mr. Yang stressed that the Chinese side strongly demands the U.S. Government give full attention to the solemn position and demand of the Chinese Government, fully recognize the serious damage the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act could inflict, strictly abide by the three China-U.S. joint communiqués and the relevant commitments it has undertaken, and take immediate action to prevent the bill from becoming law, as the U.S. Government and President Clinton personally have pledged to do. Moreover, the U.S. side should halt immediately its sales of sophisticated weapons, equipment and technologies to Taiwan in strict accordance with the China-U.S. Joint Communiqué of August 17, 1982 on U.S. arms sales to Taiwan.
Mr. Prueher said that the U.S. Government is strongly against the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act passed by the House on 1 February. On the same day, a responsible member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the NPC and the Foreign Affairs Committee of the CPPCC expressed their strong opposition to the so called "Taiwan Security Enhancement Act" adopted by the U.S. House of Representatives.
G. The question of U.S. support to Taiwan's accession to WHO
On December 7, 1999, in disregard of the solemn representation from the Chinese side, President Clinton signed the so called bill supportive of Taiwan's participation in the World Health Organization which asserts that the State Department shall report to the U.S. Congress on the administrative department's efforts to support Taiwan's attempt to "participate" in international organizations and the WHO in particular. Before that, President Clinton also signed the "Omnibus Appropriations Act " which stipulates that the U.S. State Department should report to the Congress every half year, on its moves in helping Taiwan squeeze into international organizations where statehood is a prerequisite.
On December 10, Vice Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi summoned G. Eugene Martin, Charge d'affairs of the U.S. Embassy in China and lodged as instructed strong protest with the U.S. side. Yang Jiechi pointed out that according to international laws, Taiwan, a province of China, has no right at all to join international organizations that are accessible only to sovereign states. The US Government has made a clear-cut commitment to the Chinese Government and people that it will not support Taiwan in its effort to join any international organizations made up of sovereign states.
The aforesaid US motions supportive of Taiwan 's "participation" of WHO and other international organizations of sovereign states are actually playing with words by using "participation" to mean "join" in an attempt to squeeze Taiwan into the above mentioned international organizations thus backing up the Taiwanese authority's action to expand "space for international activities," and to make "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan." What the US Government has done has completely violated the principles the three China-US Joint Communiqués and the US commitment hampered the cause of China's reunification and grossly trampled the norms of international relations. The Chinese Government and people hereby express their utmost indignation at and firm opposition to these motions.
Yang jiechi emphasized, solving the Taiwan issue and reunifying the motherland has been the greatest aspiration of the entire Chinese people including the Taiwan compatriots. The Chinese Government and the people have the will and ability to accomplish the reunification of China and that is irresistible. The U.S. side is quite clear that the Taiwan issue is the most important and sensitive issue at the core of China-U.S. relations. The Chinese side solemnly demands that the United States abide by the one-China policy, the three communiqués and its commitments and correct the wrong acts by restraining from any means to support Taiwan's entry into WHO and other international organizations whose members are sovereign states. Otherwise, the U.S. should be responsible for all the serious consequences arising therefrom.