The People's Republic of China shares the longest land boundary with Mongolia. In 2010, China-Mongolia good-neighborly partnership of mutual trust developed steadily.
The two countries maintained the momentum of high-level exchanges. From 1 to 2 June, during his official visit to Mongolia, Premier Wen Jiabao held talks with Prime Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold and had separate meetings with President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj and Chairman of the State Great Hural of Mongolia Damdingiin Demberel. During the visit, the two sides signed the economic and technical cooperation agreement and other cooperation documents. From 28 April to 3 May, Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj paid a state visit to China and attended the opening ceremony of the Shanghai World Expo. President Hu Jintao held talks with him and Premier Wen Jiabao and CPPCC Chairman Jia Qinglin met with him respectively. From 9 to 13 April, Mongolian Prime Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold attended the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2010 and had separate meetings with Premier Wen Jiabao and Vice President Xi Jinping. On 8 September, Vice President Xi Jinping met with Vice Prime Minister Miyegombogiin Enkhbold on the sidelines of the Second United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: World Investment Forum in Xiamen.
Other mutual visits included: from 10 to 13 January, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry Tunjingiin Badamjunai visited China. From 28 to 29 April, Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Zhang Xiaoqiang visited Mongolia. From 18 to 25 May, General Secretary of the Mongolian National Democratic Party Dondogdorjiin Erdenebate visited China. From 15 to 17 August, Minister of the International Department of the CPC Central Committee (IDCPC) Wang Jiarui visited Mongolia. From 19 to 22 August, Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the PLA, General Ma Xiaotian visited Mongolia for the Fifth China-Mongolia Defense Consultation. From 11 to 18 December, General Secretary of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh visited China. From 13 to 20 December, Secretary of the National Security Council of Mongolia Tsagaandaryn Enkhtuvshin visited China. From 21 to 25 December, Chief of the General Staff of the Mongolian Armed Forces Tserendejidiin Byambajav visited China.
Bilateral business cooperation continued to grow. Two-way trade gradually shook off the impact of the international financial crisis and rose sharply year-on-year. China remained as Mongolia's largest trading partner and investor.
China and Mongolia maintained a good momentum of exchanges and cooperation in culture, education and other fields. On 2 June, the China Culture Center was unveiled in Ulan Bator. From 2 to 10 August, a delegation of 60 high school students from earthquake-stricken Yu Shu of Qinghai Province visited Mongolia. There were active exchanges between adjacent provinces of the two countries.