The Second Upsurge in the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations
During the first upsurge in the establishment of diplomatic relations in the early 50s, New China established diplomatic ties with the USSR, the East European socialist states and some neighboring Asian nationalist countries, From the latter half of the 50s to the end of the 60s, China established diplomatic ties with many more countries, forming a second upsurge in the establishment of diplomatic relations. At the end of 1969 there were 50 countries that have diplomatic ties with China, doubled the figure of the end of 1955 when there were only 23 countries that have diplomatic relations with China. All the newly added countries except France were from Asia, Africa and Latin America, and a further breakdown showed that all were Arab and African countries except Ceylon, Cambodia, Laos and Cuba.
During this period, both the United States and the Soviet Union tries their utmost to maintain the bi-polar pattern. The U.S. continued to pursue a hostile policy towards China while the Soviet Union attempted to subject China under its control so that it would be conducive to the implementation of its global strategy. For this, it applied all sorts of pressures on China. China withstood the serious test in a situation in which it had to confront two super powers both of which were hostile towards China. During this period, China made fresh efforts to strengthen relations with Western Europe and made conspicuous achievement which was the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and France and thus smashed a keylink in Western Europe of the U.S. attempt to isolate China.
The second upsurge in the establishment of diplomatic relations after the birth of New China has its historical background. After the Second World War, the movement for national independence in Asia, Africa and Latin America surged forward particularly beginning from the mid 50s. An ever increasing number of countries became independent and successively embarked on the road of neutrality. They refused to be willfully manipulated by the big powers. China and the Asian, African and Latin American countries share a common experience and desire. While taking a resolute stand against the pressures of the United States and the USSR, China made great efforts to strengthen unity and cooperations with the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, gave strong support to their just struggle to win and safeguard national independence and considered this as an important component of its foreign policy. Chairman Mao Zedong solemnly declared at the Eighth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in 1956: We must render active support to the movements for national independence of the various countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
After the conclusion of the 1955 Asian-African conference, the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America saw that China actively advocate and pursue the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence, firmly stand by the oppressed countries in international affairs and thus came to have the desire of developing relations with China. On its part, China has been persistently supported the struggles of the Arab peoples against imperialism and Israeli expansionism, strongly supported the African countries and peoples in their struggle against colonialism and racialism and firmly supported the struggles of the Latin American people to resist the U.S.. China adopted an active attitude towards developing relations with them. Hence, the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and many Asian, African and Latin American countries.