Position Paper of the People's Republic of China At the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly
I. The Role of the United Nations (UN)
The world is undergoing major development, major changes and major adjustments. The trend of peace, development and cooperation is gaining momentum. Multi-polarity and economic globalization are deepening. New changes are taking place in global economic governance, and emerging economies are engaged in dynamic cooperation. All these have brought valuable opportunities to the development of all countries. On the other hand, the world still suffers from the underlying impact of the financial crisis. Global recovery is confronted with the uncertainties created by acute debt crisis, rising commodity prices and inflationary pressure around the world. In this context, major economies should continue to strengthen macroeconomic policy coordination so as to ensure strong, sustainable and balanced growth of the world economy. The international security situation has become more complex. Regional hotspot issues keep flaring up, and turbulence continues in West Asia and North Africa. Non-traditional security issues such as climate change, energy security, food security, terrorism and nuclear safety are becoming more pronounced. In sum, there are a growing array of destabilizing factors and uncertainties in the world and a long way to go before lasting peace and common development can be achieved.
The UN, as the most inclusive, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization, is the most important platform for practicing multilateralism. Since its founding, the UN has played an irreplaceable role in promoting world peace, common development and international cooperation. In today's world, the role of the UN should be strengthened, not weakened.
This year marks the 40th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People's Republic of China in the UN. Over the past 40 years, China has been deeply involved in the UN affairs in a comprehensive and active way. China and the UN have enjoyed close and fruitful cooperation in an ever wider range of fields. As a permanent member of the Security Council, China has been advocating and supporting the UN's central role in international affairs with unremitting efforts. China will, as always, uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and support the UN in harnessing its advantages so that it will become a messenger of world peace, pioneer of common development and fine example of international cooperation.
II. UN Reform
China supports necessary and reasonable reform of the UN in light of the changing international situation so as to enhance its authority and efficiency, strengthen its capacity to deal with new threats and challenges, and better fulfill the responsibilities entrusted by its Charter. Reform is necessary not only for its own improvement and development, but also because it represents the common aspirations and expectations of UN Member States. Reform should give developing countries more voice in UN affairs, as this will help the UN play a bigger role in coordinating international efforts to respond to global challenges.
Reform should be advanced in a balanced manner in all three pillars of the UN – security, development and human rights. More attention should be given to development so that it will have more support in terms of institutions and resources. Earnest efforts should be made to implement the Millennium Development Goals so that developing countries will enjoy real benefits.
Security Council reform is an important part of UN reform. China supports necessary and reasonable reform of the Security Council so as to enhance its authority and efficiency and enable it to better fulfill the responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security bestowed on it by the Charter of the United Nations. The priority of the reform should be on increasing the representation of developing countries, especially African countries, in the Security Council. More countries, small and medium-sized countries in particular, should benefit from the reform and have more opportunity to serve in the Security Council on a rotating basis and participate in its decision-making process. Since Security Council reform is comprehensive in nature, incorporating a variety of aspects, it is important to continue the extensive and democratic consultations to accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible agreement. Neither the "step-by-step" nor "piecemeal" approach will work. China will work with all countries to ensure that the reform of the Security Council will proceed in a way that promotes the overall interests of the UN and the unity of its Member States.
III. Security Issues
1. Peacekeeping Operations
UN peacekeeping operations are an important and effective means for maintaining international peace and security. The peacekeeping operations, ever larger in scale and broader in mandate, are facing more challenges. China is a strong supporter of and active participant in UN peacekeeping operations. China believes that peacekeeping operations should be carried out in accordance with the mandate of relevant Security Council resolutions. China supports the three principles of "consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense" put forward by former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, and reasonable and innovative reform of peacekeeping operations. The reform should prioritize strategic design, enhance communication and coordination with the host countries, improve logistical mechanisms, optimize resources allocation and increase the efficiency and efficacy of peacekeeping operations and the standards of their deployment, planning and management. At the same time, the parties concerned should place greater emphasis on better coordination between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding. China calls on the UN to further enhance cooperation with regional organizations and pay more attention to the needs of African countries in particular.
Since 1989, China has sent over 19,000 military personnel, policemen and civilian officials to 28 UN peacekeeping operations. By August 2011, 1,925 Chinese peacekeepers had been on duty at 12 missions, making China the 15th largest troop-contributing country in the world and the largest troop contributing country among the five permanent members of the Security Council.
Peacebuilding involves the entire UN system. The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), an important outcome of UN reform, is the first agency in the UN system entrusted with coordinating post-conflict rebuilding and therefore has a unique status and important role. China, as always, supports the UN's leading role in post-conflict rebuilding and the work of the PBC and the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF). Going forward, the PBC should further improve its institution-building, strengthen coordination with other UN agencies, enhance partnership with the countries involved and make better use of the PBF. The General Assembly, Security Council and ECOSOC should make good use of their respective advantages to support the work of the PBC.
3. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict
China is deeply concerned about the threat of armed conflict to the life and property of civilians and urges the parties concerned to abide by international law and the relevant Security Council resolutions in good faith and give full protection to civilians caught up in armed conflict.
According to the Charter of the United Nations and the international humanitarian law, the responsibility to protect civilians rests first with the government of the country involved. When providing assistance, the international community and external organizations should adhere to the principles of "impartiality, neutrality and objectiveness", obtain the consent of the host country, fully respect its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and refrain from interfering in local political disputes or impeding the peace process.
The protection of civilians should be incorporated into the political process aimed at seeking peaceful solutions to conflict. It should also be given priority in post-conflict rebuilding. The relevant UN agencies should strengthen coordination and forge synergy in this respect.
China supports combating terrorism in all its manifestations. The international community should act according to the Charter of the United Nations, international law and other universally recognized norms governing international relations, and give full play to the leading and coordinating role of the UN and its Security Council. China endorses and has taken an active part in the drafting of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, and hopes that the parties will continue consultation in a constructive and cooperative spirit and reach agreement on it at an early date.
China opposes all forms of terrorism. China advocates a holistic approach that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism and removes the breeding ground for terrorism. By making full use of its advantages, the UN should play an active role in eliminating poverty and other root causes of terrorism, promote dialogue among civilizations and assist developing countries in counter-terrorism capacity building. China opposes linking terrorism to certain countries, ethnic groups, religions or civilizations as well as double standards.
China is also a victim of terrorism. The "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement" and other "Eastern Turkestan" terrorist forces have long been masterminding and instigating terrorist attacks against the Chinese government and people. Fighting the "Eastern Turkestan" terrorist forces is an important part of the international struggle against terrorism. China will continue to take an active part in international counter-terrorism cooperation and work with all countries to fight the "Eastern Turkestan" and other international terrorist forces.
5. Situation on the Korean Peninsula
To uphold peace and stability and achieve the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula serves the common interests of all relevant parties and represents the call of the international community. Thanks to the concerted efforts of the parties, there have recently been some positive changes in the situation, which China welcomes. China holds the view that dialogue and consultation is the only effective way to resolve the various issues and the Six-Party Talks is an effective platform for addressing the concerns of the parties in a balanced manner and achieve denuclearization of the Peninsula. China hopes that the parties will maintain dialogue and contact, stay committed to resolving differences through negotiation and resume the Six-Party Talks at an early date. China is ready to work with the other parties to continue and play a constructive role in this process.
The formation and smooth operation of the new government marks important progress in the democratic process of Myanmar. China hopes to see political stability, economic development and social progress in Myanmar. The Myanmar issue is, in essence, the country's internal affair. The international community should provide constructive help to Myanmar and create an enabling environment for it to advance national reconciliation and steadily achieve democracy and development. Imposing sanctions and pressure will not help resolve the issue. China supports the good offices of the UN Secretary-General and his Special Advisor, and will continue working with the international community to provide support and assistance so as to contribute to democracy and development in Myanmar.
The situation in Afghanistan affects peace and stability in the region and the world at large as well as smooth progress of the international counter-terrorism effort. Afghanistan has made positive progress in political reconciliation and economic reconstruction. At the same time, it still faces some difficulties and challenges. It requires the efforts of both Afghanistan and the international community to bring about a peaceful, stable, independent Afghanistan that enjoys development.
As a friendly neighbor of Afghanistan, China has consistently supported and actively participated in Afghanistan's peace and reconstruction process. We support the reconciliation and reintegration plan led by the Afghan government and closer cooperation between Afghanistan and countries in the region, and compliment Afghanistan's efforts to improve the security situation. China calls on the international community to create conditions for the Afghan government to take over security responsibilities, honor commitment of assistance to Afghanistan's economic and social development, and strengthen mutual coordination and cooperation with Afghanistan. China supports the UN in continuing to play a lead role in helping Afghanistan.
8. Iranian Nuclear Issue
China supports and upholds the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, and calls for an appropriate solution to the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation so as to safeguard peace and stability in the Middle East. As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Iran has the right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and should at the same time fulfill relevant international obligations.
China believes that dialogue and negotiation not only is the right way to properly resolve the Iranian nuclear issue but also serves the fundamental interests of all parties. Under the current situation, the relevant parties should step up diplomatic efforts, resume dialogue at an early date and build up trust to create conditions for a comprehensive, long-term and appropriate solution to the issue. China will spare no effort to encourage negotiations and, bearing in mind the overall interests of upholding the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and peace and stability in the Middle East, will continue to play a constructive role in advancing the diplomatic effort.
9. Middle East
China has always supported the Middle East peace process. It is China's long-held position that the parties concerned properly solve their disputes through political and diplomatic means on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Middle East Roadmap for Peace with the goal of ultimately establishing an independent Palestinian state and achieving normalization of relations between Israel and all Arab countries.
Peaceful negotiation is the only right way to solve the issue. China is deeply concerned about the stalled Palestinian-Israeli peace talks and appeals to all parties concerned to proceed from the wellbeing of Palestinian and Israeli people and peace and stability in the region, remove obstacles, rebuild trust and create favorable conditions for an early restart of the talks. China's view is that to establish an independent Palestinian state that enjoys full sovereignty is the legitimate right of the Palestinian people. China supports the establishment of a Palestinian state through peaceful talks, with East Jerusalem as its capital and based on the 1967 border, thus realizing "the two-state solution". China supports the ongoing efforts of the relevant parties and stands ready to provide further assistance as its ability permits. China welcomes the internal reconciliation between different Palestinian factions, supports them in strengthening unity and cooperation and playing a positive role in the Middle East peace process. The Syria-Israel track and Lebanon-Israel track are important components of the Middle East peace process and deserve similar attention and commitment. China will work with the international community for an early, just, comprehensive and lasting settlement of the Middle East issue.
The Republic of South Sudan was founded on 9 July. China respects the will and choice of the people of Sudan and South Sudan, and hopes that the two sides will, in the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, continue to properly solve the outstanding issues through dialogue and negotiation. The international community should continue to support their dialogue and uphold peace and stability in Sudan, South Sudan and the wider region.
China supports the political settlement of the Darfur issue and believes that the role of the UN-AU-Sudan tripartite mechanism as the main channel should be brought into full play and the "dual-track" strategy should be advanced to promote balanced progress in peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation. China welcomes the peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement and calls on other opposition groups in Darfur to join the political negotiation process at an early date. At the same time, it is imperative to help Sudan improve the humanitarian and security situation in Darfur so as to realize peace, stability and development in the region as soon as possible.
China has contributed efforts to addressing the issue of Sudan. China sent a mission to observe the referendum in Southern Sudan and provided assistance to the referendum both in cash and in kind. China provided 68 million yuan of free assistance to South Sudan, organized training for personnel from the South, and participated in the development of the South. China provided Darfur with 180 million yuan worth of humanitarian and development assistance and contributed 2.3 million and 1 million dollars respectively to the AU and UN trust funds. China actively participated in the UN Mission in the Sudan, the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur and the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan. China will continue to work for the proper settlement of the Sudan issue.
The issue of Somalia has been festering for a long time. Piracy is seriously affecting international shipping, and China is deeply concerned. China hopes that the relevant parties in Somalia will bear in mind the interest of the country and its people, take an active part in the peace process and address their differences through dialogue and negotiation so as to bring an early end to the war and realize enduring peace and national reconstruction.
China commends the positive role played by the United Nations in pushing forward the Somali peace process. The international community should continue to encourage negotiations through various channels and speedily fulfill its commitment of assistance to Somalia. It should support the transitional government in strengthening the national security force to enhance its self-defense capability, increase financial, technical and logistical assistance to AU Mission in Somalia, and actively consider deploying a UN peacekeeping operation.
China has always supported the Somali peace process and has in recent years provided assistance to the transitional government and AU's peacekeeping mission in Somalia on several occasions. China decides to provide 16 million US dollars in cash through food assistance of the World Food Program and calls upon the international community to increase their attention on Somalia and help the affected population tide over the difficulties. China will continue to support the efforts of the United Nations, the AU and African countries in addressing the Somali issue and work with the international community to play a constructive role in advancing the Somali peace process.
12. Situation in West Asia and North Africa
Some countries in West Asia and North Africa have been experiencing turbulence. China is concerned about the situation and hopes that stability and normal order will soon return. West Asia and North Africa have a special strategic location. The situation there affects world politics and economy as well as energy. It also has a bearing on world security and stability. To bring about peace, stability, development and prosperity in the region serves the interest of not only the countries in the region but also the entire international community.
China's position on the situation in West Asia and North Africa is as follows: First, we adhere to the principle of non-interference in others' internal affairs, respect and support countries in the region in independently handling their domestic affairs, and respect the wish and aspiration of the people in the region. We hope relevant parties in the countries of the region will resolve differences through political dialogue and restore stability and normal order as soon as possible. We believe the countries and people in the region have the ability and the wisdom to find a political system and development path suited to their specific conditions. Second, we call on the international community to work with countries in the region and play a positive and constructive role in easing tensions and moving the region toward stability at an early date. The UN should play a leading role in stabilizing the situation in the region and the post-conflict reconstruction of the relevant countries. Third, we believe it is important for all parties to push for the settlement of the Palestinian-Israeli dispute and the Iranian nuclear issue so as to create a favorable environment for regional stability and development.
China supports all diplomatic and mediation efforts that help restore stability to the region. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a responsible country, China is ready to work with the international community to contribute to peace, stability and development in West Asia and North Africa.
The situation in Libya has entered a new phase yet there are still some uncertainties, and post-conflict reconstruction will be a long and arduous task.
China has been following the evolving situation in Libya closely and holds the view that the Libyan crisis should be resolved by political means. The parties concerned should abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant norms of international law. The priority now is to restore stability in Libya as soon as possible. China hopes that the relevant parties will take concrete steps to bring back public order so that the Libyan people can return to normal life soon. An inclusive process for political transition must be activated as soon as possible, which must take into full account the interests and aspirations of different factions, tribes and regions and serve to uphold Libya's cohesiveness and unity to the greatest extent possible. The international community should truly respect Libya's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity, and respect the choice made by the Libyan people. The United Nations must play a leading role in the reconstruction process. The international community should provide active support to Libya's economic and social development and continue to provide humanitarian assistance under the aegis of the UN.
China supports the efforts by various parties to restore stability and push forward a smooth power transition in Libya. China will continue to work with the international community for early reconciliation and reconstruction in Libya.
China has been following the developments in Syria closely and is saddened by the continued bloodshed. We call on all parties to exercise maximum restraint, eschew violence, and avoid further escalation and casualties. China believes that the crisis should be defused by expeditiously starting a Syria-led, inclusive political process, and that various parties in Syria should peacefully and properly address the issues through dialogue and consultation. The future of Syria should be decided by itself. The international community should respect the country's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Relevant actions should help encourage both the Syrian government to deliver the promised reforms and the various parties to participate constructively in the political process, and contribute to an early stabilization of the situation.
15. Cote d'Ivoire
China appreciates Cote d'Ivoire's efforts to advance national reconciliation and post-war reconstruction in the wake of its post-election crisis. The government and people of Cote d'Ivoire face a multitude of challenges as they consolidate peace and stability and revitalize and develop the country. They need continued care, support and help from the international community. China will work with the rest of the world and continue to play an active role in promoting peace, stability and development in Cote d'Ivoire.
IV. Development Issues
1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The MDGs serve as the framework for international development cooperation. Over the past 11 years, the world has done a lot and made some progress in implementing the MDGs. But globally, it remains a long and uphill journey to meet the goals as scheduled by 2015. Sub-Saharan African countries, in particular, face significant challenges.
The UN High-Level Event on the MDGs in September 2010 gave a fresh boost to the timely, global attainment of the MDGs. The international community should actively follow up on the outcomes of the meeting, and encourage and support the efforts of all countries to take development paths that suit their national realities and explore growth models that will lead to development and poverty reduction. A global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress should be established. The working mechanisms should be improved to better coordinate and assess progress of the various MDGs and monitor the delivery of international development aid.
2. Africa's Development
Maintaining stability and development in Africa is as much a common responsibility of the international community as a pressing task of African countries. The international community, developed countries in particular, should provide more support and help to Africa, honor their commitments of aid, and enhance African countries' capacity for development. They should respect African countries' independent choice of development paths suited to their national conditions, support their efforts to independently address African issues and help the continent maintain and consolidate peace and stability so as to put its development on a solid footing. The international community should also push for a more just and equitable international political and economic order so as to create favorable external conditions for Africa's development.
For decades, China has provided sincere assistance to African countries and contributed to their economic and social development. China has adopted a series of cooperation measures within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) and announced six measures of foreign assistance at the UN High-Level Event on the MDGs in September 2010. African countries will be the main beneficiaries of these measures. The effective implementation of these measures goes a long way toward helping African countries eradicate poverty, improve people's livelihood and enhance development capability. China is ready to work with African countries and the world at large to contribute to the cause of poverty alleviation and development in Africa.
3. Food Security
Food security concerns global development and security as well as the development and well-being of all countries. Imbalance of food supply and demand undermines the effort to build a world of lasting peace and shared prosperity. The international community should adopt active and effective coordination measures in the spirit of common development to stabilize the prices of food and other commodities, prevent excessive speculation and jointly ensure global food security.
China takes agriculture, especially the food issue, very seriously. It follows the policy of basically relying on domestic supply and making adjustment as appropriate through import and export. China has been able to feed nearly 20% of the world's population with merely 7% of the world's farmland and 6.5% of fresh water, thus making the giant leap from inadequate food and clothing to a fairly comfortable life for all Chinese people and achieving the MDG on poverty alleviation ahead of schedule. China has in this way made huge contribution to global food security and world peace and development. The food security situation in China is good. We are confident that we can ensure long-term food security by mainly relying on domestic production.
China attaches importance to and takes an active part in the international efforts to eradicate hunger and reduce poverty. China helps other developing countries, African countries in particular, with agricultural development and food production. China supports the work of the Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) and has donated 30 million US dollars to FAO Trust Fund. Under the FAO Special Program for Food Security, China dispatched over 700 agriculture experts to eight African countries. Since the 2006 FOCAC Beijing Summit, China has established 14 agricultural demonstration centers in African countries and dispatched 272 agriculrual experts and technicians to Africa under the FOCAC framework. For the relief of the serious famine in the Horn of Africa, China has provided 443.2 million yuan of food assistance, which is the largest food assistance to foreign countries since the founding of the People's Republic of China. Premier Wen Jiabao announced at the fourth FOCAC Ministerial Conference that China would provide Africa with 10 billion US dollars of preferential loans in the next three years, with agriculture and water projects as the main priorities. China will work with the international community to jointly safeguard global food security and build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity.
4. Energy Security
Energy security bears closely on the stability and growth of the world economy and the well-being of people in all countries. Against the backdrop of gradual recovery of the global economy, assuring energy security is vital to the strong, sustainable and balanced growth of the world economy.
To this end, the international community should foster a new energy security outlook featuring mutually beneficial cooperation, diversified development and coordinated supply. Joint efforts must be made to stabilize the prices of energy and other commodities and prevent excessive speculation, so as to meet the energy demands of all countries, particularly the developing countries, and maintain order in the energy market. Meanwhile, countries should improve their own energy mix, promote the research, development and diffusion of advanced technology, vigorously develop clean and renewable energy, and actively advance international cooperation.
China attaches great importance to issues of energy and energy security. We adhere to the principle of "giving priority to conservation, mainly relying on domestic supply, seeking diversified development and protecting the environment". We support mutually beneficial international cooperation, and at the same time make vigorous efforts to improve and adjust the energy mix, build a reliable, economical, clean and safe energy supply system. We are speeding up the effort to build a resources-conserving and environment-friendly society. Before the Copenhagen climate change conference in 2009, China announced its target of increasing the share of non-fossil fuel in primary energy consumption to 15%, and a 40-45% decrease of CO₂emission per unit of GDP by 2020 taking 2005 as the base year. China is ready to work with other countries, establish an effective energy cooperation mechanism and make due contribution to ensuring global energy security and tackling climate change.
5. Climate Change
Climate change, a major challenge facing today's world, bears on human survival and the interests of all countries, and concerns world equity and justice. The international community should enhance cooperation on the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. China has all along played a positive and constructive role in international climate change negotiations and cooperation. In our view, the issue should be addressed according to the principles of equity and "common but differentiated responsibilities" in the context of sustainable development. We must pay equal attention to mitigation and adaptation, rely on the innovation of science and technology as well as the technological advancement, and encourage a whole-of-society approach and the broadest possible international cooperation.
The 2010 Cancun conference reached the generally balanced "Cancun Agreements". China applauds this achievement. For the developing countries, the 2011 Durban conference cannot be successful without securing an agreement on the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, continuing to adhere to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol as the main channel of negotiation, and sticking to democracy, openness, transparency and inclusiveness of the UN process. The parties should enhance political trust, create an atmosphere of negotiation favorable to cooperation, work for substantive progress in the negotiations and reach comprehensive, balanced and positive outcomes consistent with the Bali Roadmap. China also hopes that developed countries could display sincerity, provide financial and technical support, help the developing countries to tackle climate change, and push the negotiation process in the right direction.
Bearing in mind the best interest of the Chinese people and long-term human development, China has adopted a series of strong measures to tackle climate change which have produced notable results. The 12th Five-Year Program adopted by China's National People's Congress sets mandatory targets for tackling climate change in China and reflects the concept of "green, low-carbon development". This is the choice of the Chinese government as to China's future development model, and an important contribution to the global efforts to tackle climate change. We will continue to play a positive and constructive role in the international negotiations and work with other parties for a positive outcome of the Durban conference consistent with the mandate of the Bali Roadmap.
6. South-South Cooperation
For developing countries, South-South cooperation is an important channel to draw on each other's strengths and realize common development, as well as an important means to help each other to address development challenges. In recent years, South-South cooperation has made positive progress, generating active trade and investment flows between developing countries. Some new mechanisms and initiatives have been launched, injecting fresh vitality into South-South cooperation.
China believes that South-South cooperation is one form of win-win cooperation between developing countries. Mutually beneficial, voluntary and unconditional, it is not the same as assistance. It is different from North-South cooperation and supplements, rather than replaces, the latter. There should be vigorous consultation and coordination between the developing countries on major international issues, through which they can coordinate actions to uphold their legitimate rights and interests. Developing countries should, in the spirit of equality and mutual benefit, continue to explore new channels, content and models of cooperation in light of the evolving situation and their own needs. They should also enhance coordination to make full use of multilateral mechanisms and work for an equitable and just international political and economic order. Due to the impact of the international financial crisis, the development environment in which the developing countries find themselves is hardly optimistic. Under such circumstances, it is even more important for them to strengthen South-South cooperation against common challenges, achieve the sound and sustained development of their economies and strengthen the capacity of independent development.
7. Financing for Development
The inadequate financing for development has always been a major impediment to international development. This issue becomes more acute now that the global financial crisis has taken a heavy toll on low-income countries.
The pressing task is to establish a sound global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress, implement the Monterrey Consensus, and ensure that the MDGs are met on schedule. China calls for efforts in the following five areas: First, increase the resources and strengthen the institutions of development. Second, developed countries should deliver on their commitment to increase their official development assistance to 0.7% of their gross national income, and further reduce debts owed by developing countries and open markets to them. Third, endeavor to reduce the damage of the financial crisis on the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, and take concrete actions to help them maintain financial stability and economic growth. Fourth, curb trade protectionism and make sure the Doha Round negotiations achieve its development objectives. Fifth, create a favorable external development environment for developing countries, and oppose the arbitrary imposition of economic, commercial and financial blockade on developing countries.
8. Doha Round Negotiations
To uphold and advance the Doha Round negotiations will be in the interest of consolidating the position of the multilateral trading regime, curtailing trade protectionism, and promoting global recovery and sustainable development.
China is committed to building a fair, equitable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading regime and has taken a constructive and positive approach to the Doha Round negotiations. We call on all parties to demonstrate more political will, advance the negotiations in real earnest, and uphold the credibility of the multilateral trading regime. China is open to all initiatives that will push forward the negotiations. In our view, first we must lock in the outcomes achieved in the past decade. Secondly, we must uphold the development mandate of the Round and take into full account the interests and concerns of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries. Thirdly, we must work for a package deal.
9. Reform of the International Financial System
The international financial crisis exposed the deficiencies and inadequacies of the existing global economic governance system. It is in the common interest of the international community to strengthen global economic governance and build an institutional framework conducive to the long-term, healthy and stable development of the world economy. The consensus is to make necessary reforms to the existing international financial system and establish a fair, equitable, inclusive and well-managed international financial system.
China calls on international efforts to: improve the international financial governance system, continue to advance the reform of the international financial institutions, strengthen the development and poverty reduction roles of international financial institutions, increase the voice and representation of emerging markets and developing countries; improve the international financial supervisory and regulatory regime, strengthen supervision over developed economies hosting important financial centers and the macroeconomic policies of such economies, strengthen regulation and supervision over cross-border capital flows, financial derivatives of commodities trading and rating agencies and formulate global accounting standards; improve the international monetary system, improve the reserve currency issuance regulatory mechanism, maintain the relative stability of exchange rates of major reserve currencies, explore an international reserve currency system with stable value, rules-based issuance and manageable supply, and strengthen the capacity of developing countries to deal with financial risks.
10. Environment and Sustainable Development (Rio+20)
The UN Conference on Sustainable Development to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2012 represents an important opportunity to promote international cooperation on sustainable development. China supports the Conference and will work with other countries to comprehensively evaluate the progress made over the past 20 years and the remaining gaps in the field of sustainable development, reiterate political commitments and formulate action plans to coordinate the implementation of various commitments and promote global sustainable development.
For the Conference to achieve these goals, it is important that it: First, stick to the principle and goal of sustainable development, and coordinate economic, social and environmental factors. Second, stick to the principles adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, including the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities". Third, stick to the principle of diversity of development models, and respect the right of countries to independently choose their development paths and secure adequete policy space. Fourth, stick to the principle of consultation and consensus. The Conference should be action-orientied and focus on consensus-building. It should listen to the views of developing countries, set aside differences and expand consensus.
On green economy. Poverty reduction should be the top priority of developing countries in developing green economy. The international community should take concrete measures to oppose the practice of trade protectionism under the pretext of developing green economy or condition their overseas aid on the development of green economy. Developed countries should take the lead to change the unsustainable way of consumption and help developing countries grow their economy, including by providing funding, transferring technologies, building capacity and expanding market access.
On the institutional framework of sustainable development. The framework should help strengthen the development pillar of the UN, coordinate economic growth, social development and environmental protection, and solve the problems confronting developing countries, such as lack of funding, technologies and capacity. We should give full play to the core and leading role of the UN, strengthen its capacity in policy guidance and action coordination, and improve coordination between various agencies, multilateral mechanisms and treaty mechanisms so as to make joint efforts to achieve sustainable development.
V. Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
China has consistently placed importance on and supported international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, and stood for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) including nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery, and strictly fulfills its international obligations and relevant commitments. To achieve the goal of non-proliferation, all countries should help build a global security environment of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce the motivation for the proliferation of WMDs; resolve proliferation issues by political and diplomatic means; uphold and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime; and handle the relationship between non-proliferation and the peaceful use of science and technology in a balanced way and abandon double standards. China would like to step up exchanges and cooperation with all parties to move forward the international non-proliferation process.
China has consistently and actively advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is firmly committed to a nuclear strategy based on self-defence and has upheld its commitment that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances and that it would unconditionally refrain from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has exercised the utmost restraint regarding the scale and development of its nuclear arsenal, never deployed nuclear weapons in other countries and never taken part in any form of nuclear arms race. China will continue to keep its nuclear force at the minimum level required for national security.
China firmly supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and pushes for its early entry into force. China supports the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in concluding a comprehensive and balanced program of work, launching negotiation on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty at an early date and start discussion on substantive issues relating to prevention of the weaponization of outer space and "nuclear free security". During its rotating presidency of CD this year, China has worked hard to bridge differences between various parties so as to start substantive work.
China believes that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. China welcomes the positive results of the 2010 review conference and hope that the parties will make joint efforts to implement the final documents. In the current situation, the authority and universality of the NPT should be upheld and strengthened for it to play an even bigger role in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons and promoting nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
China takes seriously nuclear safety and security, opposes nuclear terrorism, supports increasing relevant international cooperation and welcomes progress made in this respect at the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington D.C. China will work with other parties for positive results at the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in 2012.
China maintains that safety should come first in the use of nuclear energy. China supports the international community in taking concrete measures to enhance nuclear safety and conducting international cooperation to promote the sound and sustainable development of nuclear energy.
China supports the purposes and objectives of both the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). China has fully and strictly fulfilled its obligations under the two Conventions, supports the enhancement of their universality. China calls for all parties to properly address the issue of failure to meet the final extended deadlines for the destruction of chemical weapons so as to uphold the authority and credibility of the CWC. At the same time, the Possessor States Parties and Abandoning States Parties shall make further efforts to speed up and expeditiously complete the destruction process. China will take an active and constructive part in the 7th review conference of the BWC and contribute to strengthening the effectiveness of the BWC in a comprehensive manner.
China always stands for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes arms race in or the introduction of weapons into outer space. China maintains that the international community should conclude relevant international legal instruments as soon as possible to fundamentally remove security threats to outer space. China values the positive role of the Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBM) in safeguarding security in outer space, advocates the principle of "inclusiveness and complementarity" in promoting the prevention of arms race and the TCBM process in outer space. China will take a constructive part in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Outer Space TCBM.
China believes that information security is a common challenge facing the international community. It can only be effectively addressed through greater international cooperation, and the UN should play a central role in this process. Formulating relevant rules will help bring about responsible conduct in the information space and lay a solid foundation for greater international cooperation.
China attaches importance to military transparency and is committed to enhancing mutual trust with other countries in the military field. In 2007, China joined the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures, and resumed its participation in the UN Register of Conventional Arms. China has taken a constructive part in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Military Expenditures Transparency.
China attaches importance to humanitarian issues in the field of arms control, China is committed to strengthening the universality and effectiveness of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and its Protocols, and has taken a constructive part in the negotiations of the Group of Governmental Experts of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. China has actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and helped relevant countries end suffering caused by landmines. China has taken an active part in the "Arms Trade Treaty" process, and supports the international community in taking necessary measures to regulate the arms trade, and prevent and crack down on the illicit transfer and transportation of conventional weapons. China actively supports international efforts on combating illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and earnestly implements the UN Program of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects and the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.
VI. Human Rights
All governments are duty-bound to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant provisions of international instruments on human rights, taking into account their respective national conditions. The international community should recognize that all human rights are indivisible and attach equal importance to the realization of the economic, social and cultural rights, civil and political rights, and the right to development. Due to different national conditions, countries have adopted different approaches to and models on human rights. It is undesirable to impose a uniform model in the promotion and protection of human rights.
The Chinese government is an active advocate of international cooperation in the field of human rights. We maintain that on the basis of equality and mutual respect, countries should engage in constructive dialogue and exchanges on human rights issues to promote mutual understanding and mutual learning. We oppose politicizing human rights issues or adopting double standards.
China has always played an active and constructive part in the work of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC). The resolution for the review of the HRC was adopted at the 65th session of the UNGA. China is ready to work with other parties to implement the resolution, and encourage the HRC to stick to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner.
VII. Social Issues
1. Transnational Crime
Economic globalization has fuelled the spread of transnational organized crimes like production and trafficking of illicit drugs, trafficking in persons, money laundering and corruption. These crimes, which are often connected with terrorist activities, pose serious threats to economic development and public order and challenges to regional peace and stability.
Strengthening international cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crime is not only the common need and consensus of the international community but also the unshirkable responsibility of all countries. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption are major achievements of the international community in the fight against transnational crime. The international community should, in accordance with the purposes and spirit of the Conventions, enhance cooperation on the basis of mutual respect, especially in the fields of judicial assistance and extradition.
China attaches great importance to and plays an active part in international cooperation against transnational organized crime. China has ratified the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, maintained good cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and the United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice and other UN agencies and relevant international and regional organizations, and actively engaged in bilateral police and judicial cooperation with relevant countries. China will enhance cooperation with the international community to jointly combat transnational organized crime.
HIV/AIDS is a serious health hazard and an impediment to the economic and social development of all countries. To prevent and control HIV/AIDS is an urgent task of the international community and an important dimension of the MDGs.
The international community, especially the developed countries, should do more to help the developing countries strengthen their capacity of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, among other international institutions, should increase coordination and play a bigger role in helping developing countries fight HIV/AIDS.
The Chinese government has taken a series of measures to prevent and control HIV/AIDS and worked hard to increase the level of rights protection of those living with HIV/AIDS and strengthen public awareness and care for HIV-infected people and AIDS patients. China takes an active part in relevant international cooperation and will continue to work with the international community to reduce the harm of HIV/AIDS.
3. Public Health Security
Public health security bears on the health and safety of people of all countries. To ensure global public health security is a shared responsibility of the international community. Governments of all countries should enhance capacity building in order to provide strong support for human health and promote coordinated and sustainable economic and social development.
The Chinese government puts the people first, attaches great importance to public health and is deepening the reform of the medical and healthcare system. China will make joint efforts with all countries and relevant international organizations to strengthen the sharing of information, experience and technology and deepen cooperation to better tackle global health challenges and enhance people's physical and mental health.
Corruption is a transnational scourge that affects the economic and social development of all countries in the world. Full and comprehensive international cooperation is the only way to effectively control and punish corruption. The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the first international legal instrument on fighting corruption, represents the common will and resolve of the international community and plays an important and positive role in promoting anti-corruption endeavors within and between countries. The role of the Convention as the main channel in the international fight against corruption should be fully recognized and utilized. Other international mechanisms and frameworks should not replace, weaken or alter the principles and institutions established by the Convention.
China attaches great importance to anti-corruption cooperation. We have taken an active part throughout the negotiation of the UNCAC and the establishment of relevant mechanisms under the Convention. We have made important contribution to the building and functioning of the international anti-corruption system. As a signatory to the UNCAC, China will honor its obligations under the Convention, ensure the effective role of the relevant mechanisms of the Convention, and enhance effective cooperation with other countries and international organizations on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, equality and mutual benefit.
VIII. UN Financing
To ensure a solid and stable financial footing for the UN, all Member States should, in accordance with the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations and the principle of "capacity to pay" set out in UNGA resolutions, continue to fulfill their financial obligations by paying assessments for both regular budget and peacekeeping operations on time and in full, and without conditions.
The use of UN resources should be made more effective through integration of resources and programs with full consideration and accommodation given to the legitimate concerns and demands of developing countries. Member States should step up coordination and communication to improve work efficiency and give more guidance to the Secretariat on program coordination and budget.
IX. The Rule of Law
1. The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels
It is the goal of all countries to achieve the rule of law at the national and international levels. Countries are entitled to independently choose the models of rule of law that suit their national conditions and may learn from each other for common development. To strengthen international rule of law, it is necessary to uphold the authority of the Charter of the United Nations, strictly abide by the universally recognized principles and rules of international law, insist on the consistent application of international law, avoid double standards, improve the law-making process and promote democracy in international relations.
2. The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
China supports an enhanced role of the ICJ in promoting peaceful resolution of international disputes and international rule of law, and welcomes its continued endeavor to improve its work method and efficiency. China hopes that the ICJ will play a positive role in safeguarding a stable international order and upholding justice. The right of each country to opt for the peaceful settlement of disputes should be respected.
3. The International Criminal Court (ICC)
China supports the establishment of an independent, impartial, effective and universally recognized institution of international criminal justice to complement national legal systems in punishing the most serious international crimes and promoting world peace and judicial justice. The work of the ICC should serve the purpose of promoting international peace and security and safeguarding the well-being of mankind, and it should operate in coordination and cooperation with other international mechanisms without impeding or jeopardizing the relevant peace processes. China will continue to pay close attention to the work of the ICC, and we hope that it will win the trust and respect of the international community by becoming objective and fair in its future conduct.
4. Oceans and the Law of the Sea
Maritime harmony is part and parcel of building a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity. To establish and maintain a harmonious international order on the sea, China believes that it is imperative to: First, strike a balance between rational utilization and scientific conservation. While utilizing the sea in a sustainable manner for the benefit of mankind, we should strengthen conservation so as to achieve harmony between man and the sea. Second, make an equitable distribution of maritime interests and share the responsibility of conservation. The particular situation and concerns of developing countries, especially of the least developed countries and small island states, should be taken into special consideration. And attention should be given to building the capacity of developing countries. Third, strike a balance between the rights of coastal states and the overall interests of the international community. The outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles should be delineated in accordance with international law. While ensuring the rights of coastal states under international law, we should also protect the international seabed area which is the common heritage of mankind. Fourth, uphold the legal order of the sea with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as the foundation. The Convention is an important basis for addressing new issues and challenges in the maritime field and the legal foundation for the modern maritime order. The international community should make sure that the integrity and authority of the Convention are safeguarded.
China hopes that all countries will, on the basis of science and the rule of law, peacefully address maritime issues, differences or disputes through equal-footed dialogue and cooperation, ensure the peace, security, openness, effective protection and sustainable utilization of the sea, and work for the common development and win-win cooperation between members of the international community.