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The American States Organization

(Organización de los Estados Americanos - OEA)

2002/05/27
Establishment: The predecessor of the American States Organization is the "Republic Confederation of the America Continent". From October 1889 to April 1890, the United States of America held the first America international conference with the 17 Latin American countries in Washington, and on 14 April 1890 the "America Republic International Confederation" and its standing body - the "America Republic Commerce Bureau" was established with the day being nominated as the "Pan America Day" later. From October 1901 to January 1902, the 2nd America international conference was held in Mexico, at which it was proposed to reform the "Commerce Bureau". In 1910, at the 4th meeting held in Buenos Aires, the name "America Republic International Confederation" was renamed as the "America Republic Confederation", and the name "Commerce Bureau" as the "Pan America Confederation". In March 1945, before the signing of the "Constitution of the United Nations", the 21 countries of America decided at the Pan America Conference held in Mexico to reform and set up an America regional organization. In 1948, at the 9th meeting held in Bogota, the "Constitution of the America States Organization" got adopted, changing the former name to the "America States Organization". In 1967, the 3rd special Pan America meeting got passed the protocol for revising the "Constitution", which entered into force on 27 February 1970. The protocol stipulated that the "America States Conference" would replace the "America International Conference" and the meeting was going to be held once every year instead of once every five years with its standing body being renamed the "Secretariat".

Aim: To strengthen the peace and safety of the American continent; to ensure the disputes between the member countries to be solved peacefully; to call for supports when a member country suffers from invasion; to find solution to the political, economic and judicial problems between the member countries, and to promote economic, social and cultural cooperation among these countries, and also to control over the conventional arms as well as to speed up the integration course of the America states.

Members: As stipulated by the "Constitution of the America States Organization" every country of America can become its member so long as it approves the constitution. At present, all countries of America are the member countries, a total of 35. They are: Argentina, Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Barbados (1967), Bahamas (1982), Paraguay, Panama, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Dominica Republic, Dominic (1979), Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, Grenada (1975), Haiti, Honduras, Canada (1990), the USA, Mexico, Nicaragua, Salvador, Saint Lucia 1979), St. Vincent and Grenadines (1981), St. Kitts and Nevis (1984), Surinam (1977), Trinidad and Tobago (1967), Guatemala, Venezuela, Uruguay, Jamaica (1969), Chile, Guyana (1991), Belize (1991), Cuba (was rejected to participate in the activities of the organization since 1962). (Note: the time within the bracket denotes to the date of joining the organization).

At present, a total of 45 countries or organizations sent their observers to the America States Organization. They are: Germany, France, Spain, Greece, Italy, Belgium, Britain, Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Portugal, Vatican, Austria, Cyprus, Russia, Poland, Check, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Croatia, Bosnia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Angora, Saudi Arabia, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Israel, Lebanon, Yemen, Japan, ROK, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, and the European Union. Besides, the organization also invites according to circumstances some countries as its special observers to attend the conference.

The observer's status was officially set according to the resolutions adopted at the plenary session of the America States Organization held in 1971. It must get past unanimously by the standing council. The permanent observer to the organization has the right to attend any meeting of the organization and to speak at the meeting, and he can be invited to take part in the secret meetings too; he also has the right to obtain all kinds of documents given out at the meeting and need not to pay any membership dues, but he's obliged to join in the projects or programs for economic and technological cooperation sponsored by the organization.

Organizations: 1. Conference: the supreme organ of the organization, which is participated by all member countries with the conference being held once every year. A special meeting may be called with the consent from two thirds of the member countries. 2. The Foreign Ministers Consultative Meeting: It is officially set up based on the "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty". A meeting may be called with the consent from absolute majority of the member countries of the standing council to consult on the commonly interested urgent problems, such as things to do with military cooperation, and if so, such a meeting concerning the consultation on defense will at the same time be held and the participants at the meeting are the representatives from the supreme military authority of the member countries. 3.The organs directly under the conference: (1) The Standing Council: Composed of the representatives at the ambassadorial level with one from each member country, and its president and vice-president are held by the member countries in turns with each terms of office to be of half a year. (2) The Pan America Integration Development Council: Established in 1996 and composed of the representatives at the ambassadorial level with one from each member country, it is to replace the original Comisóin Económica para América Latina y El Caribe and the Pan America Education, Science and Culture Council. 4. The Consultative Body: The Pan America Judicial Council and the Pan America Human Rights Council. 5. The Secretariat: It's a standing body, which is led and supervised by the Conference, the Foreign Ministers Consultative Meeting and the councils of the two organizations. Its secretary-general and deputy secretary-general are elected by the conference with their terms of office being of five years, which can be renewed only for once. 6. The Special Bodies: the America Development Bank, the Pan America Health Organization, the Pan America Children's Institution, the Pan America Women's Commission, the Pan America Indians Institution, the Pan America Agricultural Cooperative Institution, the Pan America Commission for Controlling the Narcotics and the Pan America Communications Commission. Aside from all these, there are still: the Pan America Court of Human Rights, the Pan America Defense Committee, the Pan America Statistics Bureau, the Pan America Institute of Administration, and the Pan America Nuclear Energy Society and the Pan America Emergency Fund as well.

Major Persons in Charge: On 17 May 1975, Alejandro Orifila, and Argentinean, was elected the secretary-general, and he assumed the post on 7 July the same year. In March 1984, Joao Clemente Baena Soares, a Brazilian, was elected the secretary-general, was renewed in November 1988 and left the post on 15 June 1994, and he was temporarily succeeded by his deputy secretary-general, Tomos. The present secretary-general is Mr. César Gaviria, the ex-president of Colombia. He was elected on 27 March, 1994 and came to the post on 15 September that year, and was renewed on 8 June 1999.

Headquarters: Located in Washington it has its Europe working office in Geneva, and offices in all member countries.

Publications: "America", a bimonthly in English, Spanish and Portuguese.

Major Activities:

During the period from 2 October 1889 to 19 April 1890, the first America International Conference was convened in Washington and the America Republic International Confederation was established, and was decided to set up the America Republic Commerce Bureau in Washington.

From 22 October 1901 to 22 January 1902, the 2nd America International Conference was held in Mexico, proposing to change the situation in which the America Commerce Bureau was simply manipulated in the hands of the United States of America, and to organize a leading council consisting of diplomatic representatives from each member country plus another representative from the USA.

From 21 July to 26 August 1906, the 3rd America International Conference was called in Rio de Janeiro, and decided to expand the function of the America Commerce Bureau to the field of cultural cooperation.

From 12 July to 30 August 1910, the 4th America International Conference was held in Buenos Aires, at which was established the "America Republic Confederation" and the name "Commerce Bureau" was replaced by the "Pan America Confederation".

From 25 March to 13 May 1923, the 5th American International Conference was called in Santiago, at which was signed the "Treaty for the Prevention of Armed Clashes Among American Countries", namely the "Gonda Treaty" (Tratado de Gonda).

From 16 January to 20 February 1928, the 6th America International Conference was convened in Havana.

From 10 December 1928 to 5 January 1929, the America International Mediation and Arbitration meeting was called in Washington, signed at which was the General Protocol for Pan America Mediation and the Treaty for Pan America Arbitration.

From 3 to 23 December 1933, the 7th America International Conference was held in Montevideo, at which was got through the agreement concerning the obligations and rights of the member countries, laying the foundation for the principle of non-interference.

In 1936, the Pan America conference for the consolidation of peace was called in Buenos Aires, deciding to solve the disputes by peaceful means and the principle of war threatening the American republics, and the additional protocol to the principle of non-interference was signed.

From 9 to 27 December 1938, the 8th America International Conference was held in Lima, at which was published the "Lima Statement", reiterating that it would deal jointly with the interference and invasion from outside and setting up the rules for the convening of "foreign ministers meeting".

From 23 September to 3 October 1939, the first foreign ministers consultative meeting of the America States was convened in Panama City, announced at which was that during the II World War, the western hemisphere would remain neutral. The main document got through at the meeting were the "Declaration for America republics generally to remain neutral", namely the "Panama Declaration" and the resolution according to which it was to establish an America States Financial and Economic Consultative Committee, etc.

In 1945, The Pan America War and Peace Conference was convened in Mexico City, at which was decided to reform, consolidate and strengthen the Pan America System, to establish the Pan America Economic Commission and at the same time the Chapultepec Summary was signed, namely the decision about the mutual aid and unity of the America continent. The conference also made a decision to reform and establish an America regional organization.

In 1947, the Pan America conference for maintaining peace and safety of the continent was called in Rio de Janeiro, and the "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty" (also called the "Rio Treaty") was signed, namely the treaty for a collective safety of the American countries. The treaty entered into force on 30 December 1948.

From 30 March to 2 May 1948, the 9th America International Conference was convened in Bogota, and signed at which was the "Constitution for the America States Organization", and the Pan America Structure System got consolidated with the "Treaty for Solving Peacefully the Disputes in America" signed, (i.e. the Bogota Treaty).

In 1951, the 4th foreign ministers meeting made a discussion on the threat to peace on this continent due to the expansionist policy of communism.

From 1 - 30 March 1954, the 10th Pan America Conference was held in Caracas, at which the name of "America International Conference" was changed to that of "Pan America Conference", got through the "Declaration for Maintaining the Political Integrity of American Countries and against the Interference of International Communism", and decided to support the USA for overthrowing the Arbenz Government in Guatemala.

In 1961, the special meeting of the Pan America Economic Commission held in Cavo Este, and signed the "Cavo Este Constitution", deciding to set up the "Federation of Striving for Progress" and to absorb the capital of the capital exporting countries in and outside this continent and to carry out technical cooperation so as to spur up the development of the Latin American countries. The meeting also worked out a special training plan and a unified plan for technical cooperation, of which the former was mainly to train the special personnel on science and technology in countries outside America continent, who were needed for the social and economic development of the member countries, while the latter meant to directly invite the technical aid and training from countries outside the organization for the execution of the plan.

From 22 - 30 January 1962, the 8th America States foreign ministers consultative meeting was called in Cavo de Este, Uruguay. On the pretext that "any member country which believed in Marxism and Leninism was incompatible with the Pan America System, the resolution got through with an inadequate majority of two thirds (Cuba against it, and Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia waiving the right) to expel Cuba from the America States Organization and stopped any trade as regards all sorts of weapons and military equipments.

In 1964, the 9th foreign ministers consultative conference requested the member countries to sever the diplomatic, consular and trade relations with Cuba.

During 16 - 18 December 1964, the first Pan America Special meeting was convened in Washington, discussing on the principle for accepting the new member countries.

In 1965, the 10th foreign ministers consultative meeting made the decision that the "Pan America Pacification Troop" was going to be organized and sent to Dominica, thus making the armed interference by the USA with Dominica legalized. From 17 - 30 November, the 2nd Pan America Special Meeting was held in Rio de Janeiro, at which it was decided to revise the constitution and structure of the organization according to the needs and reality of the peoples in all American countries.

During 20 - 27 February 1967, the 3rd Pan America Special Meeting was held in Buenos Aires, adopted at which was the protocol (also known as the "Buenos Aires Protocol"), for revising the constitution, adding it with the new contents of "promoting the economic, social and cultural development". It was approved by two thirds of the member countries and entered into force in 1970. The protocol proposed that the Pan America Conference would be replaced by the Plenary Session of all member countries as the supreme organ of the organization with the session to be held once every year, so as to give a timely solution to the problems of the region.

In 1969, the 21 Latin American countries called a special meeting of mediation committee of the members, got through at which was the "Constitution for achieving unity through mediation in Latin America" (also known as "Vina Del May Document"), requesting that a deeper reform should be carried out between the trade of Latin America and the United States of America, and this document served as a basis for the discussion with the USA at the Pan America Economic Commission.

From 25 June to 8 July 1970, the conference was held in Washington, discussed at which was the prevention from the "terrorist" and kidnapping activities and the resolution was made to "Denounce the terrorist activities".

In 1971, at the 14th foreign ministers consultative meeting, the Latin American countries unanimously support the proposal by Ecuador that the USA infringed upon its 200 knots territorial seas. In September, the 21 Latin American countries made the "Declaration of Latin America" for maintaining the national independence and sovereignty of the Latin American countries.

From April 1971 to April 1974, the first to fourth conferences were respectively held in San Jose, Costa Rica, Washington, Washington and Georgia State. The major issues discussed at the meetings included: the agreement on the prevention and punishment of the terrorist activities, the expansion of trades, the attitude to take as to the protectionism, to set posts for permanent observer, stressing that the principle of independence of all countries and non-interference should be strictly adhered to, and to set up a special committee for studying the reform of the Pan America System.

In January 1975, the standing council passed a resolution to oppose the discriminating clauses contained in the trade laws worked out by the USA in 1974. In May the 5th conference was held in Washington, at which discussions were held concerning the reform of the Pan America System and the return of the Panama Canal, decided to revise the "Constitution" and the "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty", and the resolution was got through to request that the USA should revoke from its trade laws the clauses expelling Venezuela, Ecuador - the oil-exporting countries outside the preferential treatment system. The conference also discussed the problem of human rights in Chile and Cuba. In July, the special meeting was held for revising the "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty" and the "San Jose Protocol" was got through. It was added into the treaty the principles of "diversified politics", "safety of collective economy" and fighting against "economic encroachment", etc. The USA voted against the principle of the "Safety of Collective Economy". The 16th foreign ministers consultative meeting was called immediately after it. According to the revised "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty" the proposal made by Mexico and some other countries was got through at an inadequate majority, empowering all member countries to handle the relations with Cuba in a way they deemed it suitable. In December, the proposal made by Peru was got through at the permanent council meeting, revoking the safety consultation special committee established in 1962 for dealing with the "communist threat to the western hemisphere".

In January 1976, the draft for revising the "Constitution" was adopted by the majority of the participants at the permanent council meeting, but due to the opposition of the USA the special meeting was unable to be held for the discussion of it. The 6th conference was held in Santiago in June, at which the issue of human rights was discussed, denouncing the armed interference by the Soviet Union and Cuba against Angora, and tapping the way for ensuring the safety of the Latin America. In addition, the conference also discussed on the proposal made by Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia, requesting the USA to revoke the limitation and discrimination on the goods imported from the Latin America and to revise its laws governing the foreign trade.

In June 1977, the 7th conference was convened in San Jose, Grenada, at which the proposal concerning the human rights in the western hemisphere was got through with 14 voting for it and 8 waiving, and the proposal was also adopted for the human rights to go parallel along with the economic development in the western hemisphere. The proposal was also got through in opposition to the USA to increase the transit duty in the Panama Canal. At the 5th, 6th and 7th conferences the Latin American countries all expressed their supports for Panama's demand to recover the Panama Canal.

In June 1978, the 8th conference was held in Washington. At the opening ceremony, Carter, president of the USA expressed that the new treaty concerning the area of the Panama Canal signed between the USA and Panama was the "beginning of a new era for Pan America understanding", and thenceforth, the USA would make its efforts to solve the bilateral disputes of the Latin American countries, and also expressed its concern about "the intervention of the foreign armed forces in the regional strife". The conference also got through the resolution in regard with the action norm for the trans-national corporations, and opposing the trade protectionism.

In June 1979, at the foreign ministers consultative meeting, the resolution was got through by a majority of two thirds, requesting Nicaragua to establish a transitional democratic government to replace the government with Gobierno de Somoza at the head. At the 9th conference in November the same year, …….. the US secretary expressed that the America States Organization should regard the strengthening of the peace structure as its primary objective. The "La Paz Declaration" was adopted to attack the trade protectionism of the USA, reiterating the principle of non-interference, political diversification and the establishment of democratic political system, and it was stressed that the "expansion of the center of intensification between big countries into the Latin American and the Caribbean areas" should be prevented, requesting the member countries to abolish the measures that set limitation on the importation of the products from the developing countries into their own markets, thus damaging the price stability of raw materials.

In October 1980, under the participation of this organization, Honduras, Salvador signed the "general peace agreement" for solving the border conflicts. In November, the 10th conference was convened in Washington, at which Argentina and other countries lodged strong protests to the policy of human rights advocated by the Carter Government. The conference also denounced the military coup in Bolivia.

In February 1981, the 19th foreign ministers consultative meeting was called, at which was got through the resolution, requesting to put an end to the armed clashes between Peru and Ecuador, and also decided that a four countries committee consisting of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and the USA should be formed to carry out the mediation between the two countries. In December, the situation in the Central America was discussed at the 11th conference held in Saint Lucia, got through the resolution in regard with the Salvador Issue, reiterating that only the people of Salvador have the right to solve their own domestic problems.

In February 1982, President Ronald Reagan of the USA announced at the permanent council meeting the plan for the aid by the USA to the Central America and the Caribbean Area (also called the Caribbean Basin Proposal), mainly referring to the products (textiles, except garments, limited quantity of sugar) produced in the area exporting to the USA would be exempted from levying import duties for a period of 12 years, adding to it with an urgent aid amounting to US$ 350 millions, and adopting necessary measures to encourage the private sectors in the USA to invest in this area. From 26 April to 27 May, the 20th foreign ministers consultative meeting was called in regard to the armed clash over the Malvinas Is. between Argentina and Britain. A nine points resolution was got through at the first phase of the meeting. The major contents of the resolution include: urging Britain to stop immediately hostile activities, Britain and Argentina announcing immediately the ceasefire in order to continue the talks in consideration of the territorial sovereignty of Argentina over the Malvinas Is. and in the interests of the inhabitants on the Islands for the settlement of disputes through peaceful ways. The 2nd phase got through the resolutions, denouncing the British attack at Argentina, and requesting that the USA and the European Union end the sanction against Argentina and so on. In November, Paul Loris Adley the foreign minister of the Bahamas signed on the "Pan America Mutual-aid Treaty", becoming the 22nd member country of the treaty. In the same month, the 12th conference was held in Washington, at which 60 resolutions were adopted, requesting that Argentina and Britain to solve the disputes over the Malvinas Is. by peaceful means, opposing the trade protectionism practiced by the USA, and the conference also discussed on the situation in the Central America, but with no resolution made.

In July 1983, as requested by Honduras, the permanent council had a special meeting called, discussing on the relations between Honduras and Nicaragua. In October, the special meeting discussed on the border conflicts between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In November, the 13th conference was convened in Washington, at which representatives of the member countries denounced the invasion by the USA of Grenada. The conference also supported the peace efforts made by the Contadora Group for the Central America, and the proposal for solving the issue of exiting seaport of Bolivia. Alejandro Orfila, the secretary-general brought forward his resignation.

In March 1984, Saint Kitts and Nevis was accepted as a new member country. In November the same year, the 14th conference got through the "Brasilia Declaration", stressing that the representative system was very important for stabilizing the political situation on this hemisphere, and it played a big role in developing the economy, and the conference also confirmed fully the democratic progress made in Latin America and requested that all member countries should support the peace efforts made by the Contadora Group.

In March 1985, as requested by Argentina the permanent council called a special meeting, at which the resolution was adopted to condemn Britain of its setting up military installations on the Malvinas Islands, appealing once again to solve peacefully the disputes over the islands. In June, the resolution was made at the special meeting that the investigation would be carried out by the secretary-general of the American States Organization together with the representatives of the four countries of the Contadora Group on the border conflicts between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The 14th special meeting was convened in Cartagena, Colombia from 2 - 5 December and the resolution was adopted to revise some important points in the "Constitution for the American States", namely the "Cartagena Protocol", and discussed the issues in regard to the situation in the Central America and the foreign debts and reached an "agreement for joint actions", i.e. to strive for realizing peace in America. From 5 - 9 May the same month, the 15th conference got through the resolution to settle the Malvinas conflicts by peaceful means, and the exiting seaport for Bolivia in a reasonable way, and the "Annual Report by the American Committee of Human Rights" as well.

In May 1986, the permanent council decided to name the day of the 24th of July the "Simón Bolivar Day" . From 10 - 15, the 16th conference was held in Guatemala City, discussed at which were such issues as the crisis in the Central America, foreign debts, drug-smuggling, and also on the unilateral promulgation by Britain on 29 October that the 150 knots of waters round the Malvinas Is. would be the special fishing waters, and the regional situation incurred from it, and worked out accordingly the relevant resolutions.

In January 1987, Soares, the secretary-general and De Cuellar, the secretary-general of the UN, together with the foreign ministers of the eight countries of the Contadora Group and the "Supporting Group" formed a "Peace Mission of Ten Persons", which paid a visit to the five countries in the Central America, calling for an early realization of peace in the Central America. From 9 - 14 November, the 17th conference was held in Washington, at which most of the member countries criticized the USA policy over the Central America, but couldn't reach any resolution concerning the Central America issues.

From 14 - 19 November 1988, the 18th conference was held in Salvador, discussing on the foreign debts of the Latin American countries, the crisis in the Central America, the anti-drug smuggling and the relations with the USA, but the resolution adopted was only to make the "Cartagena Protocol" signed in 1985 to enter into force.

In May, July and August 1989, the foreign ministers meetings were respectively held, discussing on the situation on Panama, opposing to foreign interference and particularly the military interference. In October, the state leaders of the American countries, availing the opportunity to congratulate on the centenary anniversary of the realization of democracy in Costa Rica, called a meeting in its capital city, at which Canada decided to join the America States Organization. During 13 - 18 November, the 19th conference was convened in Washington, stressing that democracy and human rights were the organization's two main tasks in the following 10 years, the resolutions adopted, to denounce that Panama "infringed seriously the human rights", to decide that Canada became the full membership country as from January 1990 onwards. At the conference the USA opposed to the Cuba's rejoining the America States Organization. In December, the permanent council called a special meeting, opposing the invasion of the USA into Panama by "expressing a deep regret", and calling for the withdrawal of its armed forces from the area.

During 4 - 8 June 1990, the 20th conference was held in Asuncion, the capital city of Paraguay. The presidents of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, Surinam and Paraguay attended the meeting and signed the "Centenary Statement", congratulating on the centenary anniversary of the founding of the America States Organization, and stressed at the meeting was to strengthen cooperation and make efforts to develop economy.

From 3 - 8 June 1991, the 21 conference was held in Santiago, at which the discussion stressed on re-enlivening the America States Organization, strengthening the progress of democracy made in the region, spurring the realization of the "proposal for the cause in America", speeding up the regional integration, carrying out jointly the anti-drug struggle and consolidating the cooperation of the regional defense, etc. and the conference issued the "Santiago Agreement". The delegates of some countries called for the restoring of the lawful rights of Cuba as a member country of the organization. The conference wrote a letter to Cuba, requesting it to restore its democracy.

From 18 - 23 May 1992, the 22nd conference was convened in Nassau, the capital city of the Bahamas. At the conference discussions were held on such questions as: democracy, human rights, the banning of drugs, free trades, protection of environment, anti-poverty and anti-racial discrimination as well as the establishment of security committee of the western hemisphere and so on, and also issued the "Nassau Statement" and a series of resolutions. From 14 - 15 December of the same year, the 16th special meeting was called in Washington, at which was signed the "Washington Protocol" for revising the "Constitution of the America States Organization", and also got through such proposals like the one made by Argentina for suspending the membership qualification of the coup government, and another made by Mexico, advocating that the wiping out of the poverty constituted the part for promoting and strengthening democracy and so all member countries should take up the responsibilities for it.

From 6 - 11 June 1993, the 23rd conference was held in Managua, the capital city of Nicaragua, published at which was the "Managua Statement for Promoting Democracy and Development", and got through the "Managua Statement for Promoting Democracy and Development", and got through the resolutions for revising the constitution of the organization, setting up the council for the Pan America Development of Integration, inflicting economic sanction on Haiti and speeding up the peaceful course in Guatemala, and so on, but no common view was reached as to permitting Cuba to rejoin the organization and sending 500 armed police to Haiti.

On 17 February 1994, the conference for the cooperation and development of the America States Organization (the 20th special meeting) was held in the Mexico City, discussed at which were the strengthening of the regional cooperation, seeking for overall development and eliminating extreme poverty, etc. and the two documents were adopted, one of which was for "Promoting the Joint Cooperation and Pledge for Eliminating Poverty" and the other being the "General Policy for Cooperation and Development and the Priority in Solving the Problem". From 6-10 June, the 24th conference was held in Belem, Brazil, and the questions as to the economic and social development of the western hemisphere, democratization, anti-drug struggle and environment protection were discussed at the meeting with the "Belem Statement", reiterating to make continuous efforts for realizing democracy and economic development of the America continent, and adopted the resolution to strengthen the sanction on Haiti.

On 3 March 1995, the Pan America Human Rights Commission published a statement, demanding strongly the USA put and end to inflicting limits on the foodstuff and medicine to Cuba, opposing the embargo policy imposed by the USA upon Cuba for some 30 years. From 5-9 June, the 25th conference was convened in Port-au-Prince, the capital city of Haiti, at which the Cuban issue was for the first time put into the agenda. The conference also discussed the problems as regards the social development, progress of democracy, economic integration, wiping out poverty, protection of environment, seizing of drugs, anti-corruption and anti-terrorist activities as well as things concerning the establishment of America free trade zone, and the document about the "New Conception of the America States Organization", etc. On 30 June, the meeting of the ministers of trade of the American countries was held in Denver, USA, at which the two documents of "Joint Statement" and the "Action Program" were issued, reiterating to reach the goal set at the America summit meeting held in 1994 for establishing the America free trade zone before 2005, deciding to form seven working teams in regard to the trade technique barrier, health and quarantine, and so on, and deciding that the next two meetings for ministers of trade would be held respectively in Colombia and Brazil in 1996 and 1997. Form 6-7 November, the "Seminar on Anti-corruption" of the America State Organization was held in Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, requesting that the international cooperation had to be strengthened and the effective ways to be sought for in the anti-corruption struggle with the "Resolution of the Montevideo Seminar" adopted. From 8-11 November, the first meeting concerning the "Issue of Mutual Trust and Security" of the America States Organization was held in Santiago, the capital city of Chile, at which the issues as to promote mutual trust and security on the America continent were taken up for discussion and published the "Santiago Statement for Promoting Mutual Trust and Enhancing Measures for Safety".

From 27-29 March 1996, the anti-corruption meeting of the America States Organization was held in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, adopted at which was the "Pan America Anti-corruption Convention". From 3-7 June, the 26th conference was convened in Panama City, at which the discussion was mainly centered on attacking at the drug-smuggling, corruption and terrorist activities; strengthening the democratic system in the western hemisphere and promoting the integration in America region, and the conference also got through the documents as the "Panama Accord" (deciding to set up a 'development commission for America integration'), the "Panama Statement", the "Panama Agreement", the "Resolution for Supporting Guatemala in Realizing its Peace Course", and the "Resolution about the Western Hemisphere trade and Free Investment". From 7-9 October, the 2nd meeting of the ministers of defense of the America States Organization was held in Bariloche, Argentina, and discussed at the meeting were the issues of the America safety, defense cooperation and seizing of drugs, etc. And published the "Bariloche Statement". On 3 December, the representatives of all member countries signed the "Strategic Agreement for Anti-drugs in the Western Hemisphere". From 7-8 December, the summit meeting for the sustainable development of the American countries was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, discussed at which were mainly the issues about poverty, environment and natural resources in relation to the sustainable development and got through the "Santa Cruz Declaration" and the "Action Program", deciding to establish the Commission for the Sustainable Development of America which was charged with the task of carrying out all resolutions adopted at the meeting.

From 1-5 June 1997, the 27th conference was convened in Lima, the capital of Peru, which dealt with the regional important issues, lecturing on strengthening democracy, promoting sustainable development, pushing ahead free trade, protecting human rights, eliminating poverty, opposing corruption, opposing terrorism and anti-drugs, etc., and adopted at the meeting were these documents as the "Lima Agreement: the American Civilization towards Peace and Development", the "Outlines Against the Corruption In America", the "Anti-drug Strategy in the Continent of America", the "Outlines for Eliminating Poverty and Discrimination in America", the "Resolution of Denouncing Terrorism of Any Descriptions", the "Resolution for Opposing the Production and Unlawful Transaction of Weapons" and the "Proposal for Annihilating the Kill – and - Wound Mines" and so on, and also adopted the "Agreement for Free Trade and Investment in the Western Hemisphere", denouncing the …………without naming it directly. From 2-3 December, the 2nd financial ministers meeting of the American countries was held in Santiago, the capital of Chile, discussed at which were such issues as the Southeastern Asian Economic Crises and how to stabilize the economy in Latin America, the modernization of financial markets and integration and so on.

On 30 April 1998, the meeting for the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the America States Organization was called in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, published at which was the "Bogota Statement", and the representatives of Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela expressed their supports for the rejoining of Cuba in the America States Organization when speaking at the meeting. From 1-3 June, the 28th conference was held in Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela, and the "Caracas Statement" and the other 67 resolutions were adopted at the meeting. The foreign minister of Mexico proposed to set up a "Cuban Friendship Team" in order to push forward the settlement for Cuba to rejoin the America States Organization, but was rejected due to the opposition of the USA. The conference also denounced unanimously the nuclear tests carried out by India and Pakistan. For the first time the USA sent its secretary of state to take part in the meeting since 1979. On 12 November, the 25th conference of the America States Organization was convened in Washington with the stress laid on the financial budget of the organization. From 23-24 November, the 2nd conference of anti-terrorist activities of the American countries was held in Mardel Plata, Argentina, at which were discussed the issues concerning how to strengthen the regional safety, to cooperate well in opposing terrorist activities and to work out new measures for battling terrorist activities, etc., and also got through the documents as the "Mardel Plata Promises", proposing to set up the "Pan American Commission for Attacking Terrorist Activities" with its headquarters located in Washington. From 30 November to 2 December, the 3rd meeting of the ministers of defense of the American countries was held in Cartagena, Colombia with the stress of discussion laid on regional safety, and the related seizing of drags, attacking terrorism, transaction of weapons, human rights and environment protection, etc. And the "Cartagena Declaration" was published.

From 6-8 June 1999, the 29th conference was convened in Guatemala city, discussing on the issues regarding the strengthening of democracy, the mechanism for appraising the anti-drug activities in the western hemisphere, and overcoming the influence of international financial crises on America and the regional arms control, etc., and got through the resolution about the "Agreement for Transparent Purchasing of conventional Weapons among the American Countries" and the "Agreement for Removing All Forms of Discrimination against the Disabled among the American Countries".

Relations between China and the Organization: In February 1979, as invited by the Chinese Association of Diplomats, Alejandro Orifila, secretary of the America States Organization paid a visit to China in his own name and Premier Deng Xiaoping met him. During the period of 28 July to 17 August 1997, César Gaviria also paid a private visit to China and he was met respectively by Wang Guangying, Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and Liu Huaqiu, Director of the Foreign Affairs Office of the State Council. On 20 February 1997 Gaviria, secretary-general of the organization on behalf of the 34 countries of the America States Organization, sent a telegram to Premier Li Peng, expressing his deep condolence to the unfortunate passing-away of Comrade Deng Xiaoping.

From 4 to 6 June 2000 the 30th conference was held in Windsor, Canada. Foreign ministers or representatives from 34 countries except Cuba attended the meeting. Discussions were carried out over issues of rights of women and children, anti-corruption, establishment of peace fund, mine, convening American parliament forum, liberalization of trade and investment and the Peruvian election. The meeting adopted twelve resolutions and decided to establish a special fund on strengthening democracy.

From 4 to 5 June 2001, the 31st conference was convened in Heredia, Costa Rica. Foreign ministers or representatives from 34 countries except Cuba attended the meeting. The meeting discussed the construction of democracy, regional security, territory and human rights and passed relevant resolutions and statements.

From 10 to 11 September of the same year a special conference of the American States Organization was held in Lima, capital of Peru. Foreign Ministers or representatives from 34 countries attended the meeting. The meeting adopted America Democracy Charter. On September 21 the consultative conference of foreign ministers of the American States Organization was held in Washington, which passed the resolution on strengthening cooperation on preventing, countering, and eliminating terrorism in the Western Hemisphere. The resolution strongly condemned the 9.11 terrorist act, expressed support for the American government and people and decided to restart using Inter-America Mutual-aid Treaty.

Between June 2 and 4, 2002, the 32nd Conference was held in Bridgetown, capital city of Barbados. Foreign ministers or representatives from 34 members of the Organization of the American Countries participated in the conference. Fighting terrorism and poverty problem were the main subjects under discussion at the conference. "Agreement on Fighting Terrorism in America" was signed. Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica and the Common Wealth of the Dominican Republic agreed to sign the agreement after it went through their internal legal procedures.
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