|Scientific Exchanges and Cooperation|
Alongside the country's reform and opening-up, Tibet opened its door to the outside world with its unique attractions. In addition to extensive cooperation with domestic scientific and technological institutions, it has conducted exchanges and cooperations with more than 20 countries including the United States, Japan, Germany, Austria and Nepal. In 1987, the region's Bureau of Light Industry, Textile and Handicraft Industries imported dyeing techniques and formulae from Switzerland's Sandoz AG, and invited Swiss experts to Tibet to hold a training course for carpet dyeing. The training course helped solve a long-standing color-fading problem and boost the development of local handicraft industry. The completed leather- and shoe-making equipment and technology, imported from Germany in 1992 by the Lhasa Tanyard, laid a foundation for the best use of livestock resources. The initial exploration of the local geothermal energy resources attracted a lot of domestic and overseas geologists and energy experts. Through inspection, the United Nations and Italian experts concluded that Tibet had a bright future in geothermal development. Therefore, they successively invested US$9 million in the construction of geothermal fields of Yangbajain, Nyingzhong, Nagqu and Latogka. A second-phase geothermal project, through grants from the UN Development Program and Italy, began construction in 1989. China and various foreign parties have conducted widespread exchanges on the exploration, development and use of geothermal resources. They also arranged many overseas investigation tours, training courses and participation in international geothermal conferences. In 1993, advanced technologies and equipment were imported for the construction of a dual-cycle geothermal demonstration power station at Nagqu. At the same time, highly-efficient drilling machines and directional drilling tools were imported. Geothermal experts of Japan, the United States, Denmark, Iceland, Mexico, Australia, Canada and other countries also showed their desires to take part in the exploration of the Yangbajain Geothermal Field.