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V. The Establishment of the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (Renamed as the Yuan for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs) and the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs by the Central Government to Strengthen the Administration over the Tibet Region


After the founding of the Republic of China, it had strengthened the administration over Tibet on the basis of the established practices of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and also specially set up the corresponding government organs of administration over Tibet. On July 19, 1912, the Central Government decided to set up the Bureau for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (renamed later as the Yuan for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs). It was clearly stipulated that the Bureau was directly under the leadership of the Premier. All the matters relevant to the Mongolian and the Tibet regions should be handled by the Bureau (or Yuan) or transmitted to the Premier for making final decisions.

After the founding of the Nationalist Government in Nanjing, the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs was set up to take charge of the administrative affairs in the Mongolian and the Tibet regions as well as the other ethnic areas in 1929 so as to further strengthen the administration over the Tibet region.

After the founding of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, it handled the matters of establishing three Tibetan Affairs offices in Nanjing, Beiping and Xikang(Khams) and of appropriating expenses for them submitted by the general representative of Tibet in Nanjing Kunchok Jungnas in 1930. The Commission also examined and approved the selection of the directors, deputy directors of the three Offices as well as the proposed organizational outlines of the Offices. Afterwards, in view of the Tibet regional conditions, the Commission formulated three statutes successively:

On January 8, 1934, the Commission made public the Measures on the Respects-paying to the Central Government by the Representatives of the Dalai and the Panchen. There were seven articles in the Measures. It stipulated that the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni should in turn send a representative to Nanjing to report the situation of administration of Tibet every year. The representative should bring with him the certificate of appointment and rank or title as well as his curriculum vitae to report for duty to the Commission at the designated date every year. It also stipulated in explicit terms that the representative would pay homage to Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum, call on the Chairman of the Executive Yuan, have an audience with the President of the Nationalist Government, report the border administration to the Central Government. The Central Government would announce the administrative policy and other matters.

On February 10, 1936, the Measures on Rewards and Punishments for the Lamas were published. There were twenty-five articles in it. The requirements and the ranks of promotion for the rewarded or punished Lamas were all specifically stipulated.

On September 24, 1938, the Commission issued the Measures on the Reincarnation of the Lamas. There were thirteen articles in total. It clearly stipulated that the reincarnation of the Dalai Lamas, the Panchen Erdenis, Jetsun Dampa Hutuktus and the reincarnation of the Hutuktus, Nomihans and Panditas in various places ager their demise should be reported to the highest administrative organ in the locality and transmit to the Commission for the record. After the discovery of the reincarnate soul boy, it should first report to the highest administrative organ in the locality and then convey it to the Commission for investigation and check, then conducting lot-drawing respectively... etc.

In addition, the demise of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, the ninth Panchen Lama and paying religious tribute and offering condolences to them; the search for the reincarnate soul boys; the enthronement and title-granting to the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Erdeni and other high-rankiqg monk officials; the examination and approval of Rating and Takdra as Tibetan regents as well as the appointment, removal arid rewards to the Tibetan officials, clerical and secular, etc., all the above-mentioned matters were specifically held responsible for and handled by the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs.

Since the founding of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs up to 1949, it had all along carried out its duty. The contact and connections with the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs had never interrupted relating to the affairs between the Tibetan local government and the Central Government. It may be asked that if Tibet were "an independent country" at that time, then, how were the expenses of any country's diplomatic organs on earth obliged to apply for appropriation and borne by the resident country? Moreover, according to international practice, the inter-state affairs were represented and handled usually through diplomatic channels, but the important matters of the Tibet region were handled through the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, not by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Was that the acceptable normal way to carry on contacts between "an independent country" and another sovereign state?

Past events remain fresh in people's memory, Just as Francis Bacon, the British philosopher in the sixteenth century, said: "Histories make men wise," as we look back the values contained in the above-mentioned historical facts, we are convinced that through the review of the above-mentioned historical facts, the readers would be able to reach new consensus with us; that is, with the lapse of history, the close ties and the compatriotic affection between the Tibet region and the Central Government as well as the Tibetan people and the people in the interior of the motherland established for several hundred years could only be the longer, the stronger and the more consolidated. They could by no means be suddenly severed by the development of certain historical event or the outbreak of social transformations, even to the extent of all gone, nothing left.

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