《南海各方行为宣言》
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  [背景] 2002年11月4日,在金边举行的中国与东盟领导人会议期间,中国与东盟各国外长及外长代表签署了《南海各方行为宣言》(简称《宣言》)。中国国务院总理朱镕基和东盟各国领导人出席了签字仪式。

  《宣言》确认中国与东盟致力于加强睦邻互信伙伴关系,共同维护南海地区的和平与稳定。《宣言》强调通过友好协商和谈判,以和平方式解决南海有关争议。在争议解决之前,各方承诺保持克制,不采取使争议复杂化和扩大化的行动,并本着合作与谅解的精神,寻求建立相互信任的途径,包括开展海洋环保、搜寻与求助、打击跨国犯罪等合作。

  《宣言》是中国同东盟国家共同签署的一份重要的政治文件,体现了各方致力于维护南海稳定、增进互信和推进合作的政治意愿。

  《宣言》签署以来,中国和东盟国家一道遵循《宣言》的宗旨和原则,保持密切沟通,积极探讨合作。中国同东盟国家召开了三次高官会,成立了联合工作组并已召开6次会议,决定开展南海防灾减灾、海洋搜救、海洋科研等6个合作项目,其中中国承办3个项目,东盟国家承办3个项目。

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《南海各方行为宣言》

  中华人民共和国东盟各成员国政府,重申各方决心巩固和发展各国人民和政府之间业已存在的友谊与合作,以促进面向21世纪睦邻互信伙伴关系;

  认识到为增进本地区的和平、稳定、经济发展与繁荣,中国和东盟有必要促进南海地区和平、友好与和谐的环境;

  承诺促进1997年中华人民共和国与东盟成员国国家元首或政府首脑会晤《联合声明》所确立的原则和目标;

  希望为和平与永久解决有关国家间的分歧和争议创造有利条件;

  谨发表如下宣言:

  一、各方重申以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则、1982年《联合国海洋法公约》、《东南亚友好合作条约》、和平共处五项原则以及其它公认的国际法原则作为处理国家间关系的基本准则。

  二、各方承诺根据上述原则,在平等和相互尊重的基础上,探讨建立信任的途径。

  三、各方重申尊重并承诺,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》在内的公认的国际法原则所规定的在南海的航行及飞越自由。

  四、有关各方承诺根据公认的国际法原则,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,由直接有关的主权国家通过友好磋商和谈判,以和平方式解决它们的领土和管辖权争议,而不诉诸武力或以武力相威胁。

  五、各方承诺保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动,包括不在现无人居住的岛、礁、滩、沙或其它自然构造上采取居住的行动,并以建设性的方式处理它们的分歧。

  在和平解决它们的领土和管辖权争议之前,有关各方承诺本着合作与谅解的精神,努力寻求各种途径建立相互信任,包括:

  (一)在各方国防及军队官员之间开展适当的对话和交换意见;

  (二)保证对处于危险境地的所有公民予以公正和人道的待遇;

  (三)在自愿基础上向其它有关各方通报即将举行的联合军事演习;

  (四)在自愿基础上相互通报有关情况。

  六、在全面和永久解决争议之前,有关各方可探讨或开展合作,可包括以下领域:

  (一)海洋环保;

  (二)海洋科学研究;

  (三)海上航行和交通安全;

  (四)搜寻与救助;

  (五)打击跨国犯罪,包括但不限于打击毒品走私、海盗和海上武装抢劫以及军火走私。

  在具体实施之前,有关各方应就双边及多边合作的模式、范围和地点取得一致意见。

  七、有关各方愿通过各方同意的模式,就有关问题继续进行磋商和对话,包括对遵守本宣言问题举行定期磋商,以增进睦邻友好关系和提高透明度,创造和谐、相互理解与合作,推动以和平方式解决彼此间争议。

  八、各方承诺尊重本宣言的条款并采取与宣言相一致的行动。

  九、各方鼓励其他国家尊重本宣言所包含的原则。

  十、有关各方重申制定南海行为准则将进一步促进本地区和平与稳定,并同意在各方协商一致的基础上,朝最终达成该目标而努力。

  本宣言于2002年11月4日在柬埔寨王国金边签署。

  DECLARATION ON THE CONDUCT OF PARTIES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA  

  The Government of the People's Republic of China and the Governments of the Member States of ASEAN,

  REAFFIRMING their determination to consolidate and develop the friendship and cooperation existing between their people and the governments with the view to promoting a 21st century-oriented partnership of good neighbourliness and mutual trust;

  

  COGNIZANT of the need to promote a peaceful, friendly and harmonious environment in the South China Sea between ASEAN and China for the enhancement of peace, stability, economic growth and prosperity in the region;

  COMMITTED to enhancing the principles and objectives of the 1997 Joint Statement of the Meeting of President of the People's Republic of China and the Heads of State/Government of the Member States of ASEAN;

  DESIRING to enhance favourable conditions for a peaceful and durable solution of differences and disputes among the countries concerned;

  HEREBY DECLARE the following:

  1.The Parties reaffirm their commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and other universally recognized principles of international law which shall serve as the basic norms governing state-to-state relations;

  2.The Parties are committed to exploring ways for building trust and confidence in accordance with the above-mentioned principles and on the basis of equality and mutual respect;

  3.The Parties reaffirm their respect for and commitment to the freedom of navigation in and overflight above the South China Sea as provided for by the universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

  4.The Parties concerned undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

  5.The Parties undertake to exercise self- restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability including, among others, refraining from action of inhabiting on the presently uninhabited islands, reefs, shoals, cays and other features and to handle their differences in a constructive manner;

  Pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, the Parties concerned undertake to intensify efforts to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence between and among them, including:

  

  a. holding dialogues and exchange of views as appropriate between their defense and military officials;

  b. ensuring just and humane treatment of all persons who are either in danger or in distress;

  c. notifying, on a voluntary basis, other Parties concerned of any impending joint/combined military exercise; and

  d. exchanging, on a voluntary basis, relevant information.

  6. Pending a comprehensive and durable settlement of the disputes, the Parties concerned may explore or undertake cooperative activities. These may include the following:   

  a.marine environmental protection;

  b.marine scientific research;

  c. safety of navigation and communication at sea;

  d.search and rescue operation; and

  e.combating transnational crime, including but not limited to trafficking in illicit drugs, piracy and armed robbery at sea, and illegal traffic in arms.

  The modalities, scope and locations, in respect of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, should be agreed upon by the Parties concerned prior to their actual implementation.

  7. The Parties concerned stand ready to continue their consultations and dialogues concerning relevant issues, through modalities to be agreed by them, including regular consultations on the observance of this Declaration, for the purpose of promoting good neighbourliness and transparency, establishing harmony, mutual understanding and cooperation, and facilitating peaceful resolution of disputes among them;

  8. The Parties undertake to respect the provisions of this Declaration and take actions consistent therewith;

  9. The Parties encourage other countries to respect the principles contained in this Declaration;

  10. The Parties concerned reaffirm that the adoption of a code of conduct in the South China Sea would further promote peace and stability in the region and agree to work, on the basis of consensus, towards the eventual attainment of this objective.

  Done on the Fourth Day of November in the Year Two Thousand and Two in Phnom Penh, the Kingdom of Cambodia.

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